Cell Boundaries

Cell Boundaries
Author: Stephen H White,Gunnar von Heijne,Donald M Engelman
Publsiher: Garland Science
Total Pages: 564
Release: 2022-01-10
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781000508536

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The central themes of Cell Boundaries concern the structural and organizational principles underlying cell membranes, and how these principles enable function. By building a biological and biophysical foundation for understanding the organization of lipids in bilayers and the folding, assembly, stability, and function of membrane proteins, the book aims to broaden the knowledge of bioscience students to include the basic physics and physical chemistry that inform us about membranes. In doing so, it is hoped that physics students will find familiar territory that will lead them to an interest in biology. Our progress toward understanding membranes and membrane proteins depends strongly upon the concerted use of both biology and physics. It is important for students to know not only what we know, but how we have come to know it, so Cell Boundaries endeavours to bring out the history behind the central discoveries, especially in the early chapters, where the foundation is laid for later chapters. Science is far more interesting if, as students, we can appreciate and share in the adventures—and misadventures—of discovering new scientific knowledge. Cell Boundaries was written with advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the biological and physical sciences in mind, though this textbook will likely have appeal to researchers and other academics as well. Highlights the history of important central discoveries Early chapters lay the foundation for later chapters to build on, so knowledge is amassed High-quality line diagrams illustrate key concepts and illuminate molecular mechanisms Box features and spreads expand on topics in main text, including histories of discoveries, special techniques, and applications

Crossing the Boundaries of Life

Crossing the Boundaries of Life
Author: Karl S. Matlin
Publsiher: University of Chicago Press
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2022-05-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780226819358

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A close look at Günter Blobel’s transformative contributions to molecular cell biology. The difficulty of reconciling chemical mechanisms with the functions of whole living systems has plagued biologists since the development of cell theory in the nineteenth century. As Karl S. Matlin argues in Crossing the Boundaries of Life, it is no coincidence that this longstanding knot of scientific inquiry was loosened most meaningfully by the work of a cell biologist, the Nobel laureate Günter Blobel. In 1975, using an experimental setup that did not contain any cells at all, Blobel was able to target newly made proteins to cell membrane vesicles, enabling him to theorize how proteins in the cell distribute spatially, an idea he called the signal hypothesis. Over the next twenty years, Blobel and other scientists were able to dissect this mechanism into its precise molecular details. For elaborating his signal concept into a process he termed membrane topogenesis—the idea that each protein in the cell is synthesized with an "address" that directs the protein to its correct destination within the cell—Blobel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1999. Matlin argues that Blobel’s investigative strategy and its subsequent application addressed a fundamental unresolved dilemma that had bedeviled biology from its very beginning—the relationship between structure and function—allowing biology to achieve mechanistic molecular explanations of biological phenomena. Crossing the Boundaries of Life thus uses Blobel’s research and life story to shed light on the importance of cell biology for twentieth-century science, illustrating how it propelled the development of adjacent disciplines like biochemistry and molecular biology.

Degrees of Freedom

Degrees of Freedom
Author: Alan D M Rayner
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 328
Release: 1997-01-03
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781783263240

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Drawing especially on insights emerging from studies of the cellular networks formed by fungi, this book describes the fundamental indeterminacy that enables life forms to thrive in and create inconstant circumstances. It explains how indeterminacy arises from counteraction between associative and dissociative processes at the reactive interfaces between living systems and their surroundings. It stresses the relevance of these processes to understanding the dynamic contexts within which living systems of all kinds — including human societies-explore for, use up, conserve and recycle sources of energy. By focusing on dynamic boundaries, the book counterbalances the discretist view that living systems are assembled entirely from building-block-like units — individuals and genes — that can be freely sifted, as opposed to channeled, by natural selection. It also shows how the versatility that enables life forms to proliferate in rich environments, whilst minimizing losses in restrictive environments, depends on capacities for error and co-operation within a fluid, non-hierarchical power structure. Understanding this point yields a more compassionate, less competitive and less self-centred outlook on life's successes and failures. Contents:Defining Dynamic BoundariesScaling Hierarchies: Individuals and Collectives from Molecules to CommunitiesDeterminacy and IndeterminacyDifferentiation and IntegrationVersatility and DegeneracyBalance and CircumstanceMe and You, Us and Them: Merger, Takeover and RejectionCompassion in Place of Strife: The Future of Human Relationships? Readership: Biology students, teachers and general readers. Keywords:Living Systems;Complex Systems;Indeterminacy;Dynamic Systems;Evolutionary Processes;Boundaries;Contextual Dynamics;Non-Linearity;Biodiversity;Ecology;Environmental Relationships;Holistic Science;Pattern-FormationReviews:“Slowly, a new genre of writing is emerging that recognises both partnership and competition as crucial to understanding evolution … Degrees of Freedom is a fascinating new addition to this debate … Rayner has elegantly shown that, in much of the microbial world at least, DNA takes a back seat to environmental context. He wants to apply these same principles to the behaviour of more familiar communities such as ant colonies and plant roots and even, more contentiously, to ourselves. Already his ideas, which have been dubbed –eco-Darwinism—, have intrigued evolutionists. Now this accessible book brings his challenging perspective into the public areas.”New Scientist “Dr Rayner explains with virtuosity the extraordinary properties of the fungi of the woodland floor and relates this to a range of other phenomena, such as how humans learn.”SGM Quarterly “For such a concise book … well-referenced and indexed, it is extraordinarily wide in scope.”The Ecologist “Highly recommended for biologists of all disciplines.”Choice

Superplasticity and Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine Grained Materials

Superplasticity and Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine Grained Materials
Author: Alexander P. Zhilyaev,Farid Z. Utyashev,Georgy I. Raab
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2020-11-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128190777

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Superplasticity and Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine-Grained Materials, Second Edition, provides cutting-edge modeling solutions surrounding the role of grain boundaries in processes such as grain boundary diffusion, relaxation and grain growth. In addition, the book's authors explore the formation and evolution of the microstructure, texture and ensembles of grain boundaries in materials produced by severe plastic deformation. This updated edition, written by leading experts in the field, has been revised to include new chapters on the basics of nanostructure processing, the influence of deformation mechanisms on grain refinement, processing techniques for ultrafine-grained and nanostructured materials, and much more. Provides practical applications and methods for the proper implementation of models, allowing for more effective complex metal forming processes Features new chapters on the microstructure, mechanical behavior and functional properties of HCP metals, processing ultrafine-grained and nanostructured materials, and more Covers experimental assessment and computational modeling techniques for adiabatic heating and saturation of grain refinement during SPD of metals and alloys

Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries

Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries
Author: Peter A. Burrough,A. Frank
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 374
Release: 1996-03-07
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 0748403876

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Current geographical information systems GIS deal almost exclusively with well-defined, static geographical objects ranging from physical landscapes to towns and transport systems. Such objects, exactly located in space, can easily be handled by modern GIS, yet form only a small proportion of all the possible geographical objects.; This book challenges the assumption that the world is compsed of exactly defined and bounded geographic objects such as land parcels, rivers and countries. ignoring the essential complexity of the world, current GIS do not adequately address problems as diverse as the resolution of crime between national boundaries, or the interpretation of views of people from different cultures. This work, bringing together a range of specialists from fields such as linguistics, computer science, land surveying, cartography and soil science, examines current research into the challenges of dealing with geographical phenomena that cannot easily be forced into one of the two current standard data models.

The Nature and Behavior of Grain Boundaries

The Nature and Behavior of Grain Boundaries
Author: Anning Hu
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781475701814

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In view of the dramatically increased interest in the study of grain boundaries during the past few years, the Physical Metal lurgy Committee of The Institute of Metals Division of The Metal lurgical Society, AIME, sponsored a four-session symposium on the NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GRAIN BOUNDARIES, at the TMS-AIME Fall Meeting in Detroit, Michigan, October 18-19, 1971. The main ob jectives of this symposium were to examine the more recent develop ments, theoretical and experimental, in our understanding of grain boundaries, and to stimulate further studies in these and related areas. This volume contains most of the papers presented at the Symposium. It is regrettable that space limitations allow the inclusion of only four of the unsolicited papers, in addition to thirteen invited papers. The papers are grouped into three sections according to their major content: STRUCTURE OF GRAIN BOUNDARIES, ENERGETICS OF GRAIN BOUNDARIES, and GRAIN BOUNDARY MOTION AND RELATED PHENOMENA. Grain boundaries, or crystal interfaces, have been of both academic and practical interest for many years. An early seminar on "Metal Interfaces" was documented in 1952 by ASM. The Fourth Metallurgical Colloquium held in France, 1960, had a broad coverage on "Properties of Grain Boundaries". More recently the Australian Institute of Metals sponsored a conference on interfaces, with the proceedings being published by Butterworths in 1969.

General Technical Report PSW

General Technical Report PSW
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1978
Genre: Forests and forestry
ISBN: UOM:39015053960087

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Modeling hardening and softening due to high angle grain boundaries in crystalline solids

Modeling hardening and softening due to high angle grain boundaries in crystalline solids
Author: Xiaohui Zeng
Publsiher: Cuvillier Verlag
Total Pages: 125
Release: 2007
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9783867273732

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