The Evolution of Cooperation

The Evolution of Cooperation
Author: Robert Axelrod
Publsiher: Basic Books
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2009-04-29
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780786734887

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A famed political scientist's classic argument for a more cooperative world We assume that, in a world ruled by natural selection, selfishness pays. So why cooperate? In The Evolution of Cooperation, political scientist Robert Axelrod seeks to answer this question. In 1980, he organized the famed Computer Prisoners Dilemma Tournament, which sought to find the optimal strategy for survival in a particular game. Over and over, the simplest strategy, a cooperative program called Tit for Tat, shut out the competition. In other words, cooperation, not unfettered competition, turns out to be our best chance for survival. A vital book for leaders and decision makers, The Evolution of Cooperation reveals how cooperative principles help us think better about everything from military strategy, to political elections, to family dynamics.

Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems

Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems
Author: Bapu Vaitla
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2021-09-01
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9780128209165

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Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems analyzes cooperation within both biological networks and human societies. The book’s approach is cross-disciplinary, focusing on key ideas and methods from genetics, biology, ecology, economics, and political science, while guiding students to make conceptual and mathematical connections between fields. The core objective of the book is to help students perceive the deep, common structure of networked interaction in nature, and to gain the tools necessary to formally analyze cooperation. The book begins by offering a conceptual and mathematical toolkit centered on game theory and network science. Readers then apply these tools to the study of biological phenomena, including genetic networks, endosymbiosis, intraspecies cooperation, and mutualisms, in the following chapters. The final portion of the book presents case studies of the most pressing problems of collective action facing global society today, including climate change, cyberterrorism, and infectious disease, applying the lessons of biological and social evolution to the search for cooperative solutions. Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems is a valuable resource for readers looking to gain further insight into biological networks and animal and human biology. This book is also helpful for students across academic disciplines aside from biology, including ecology, genetics, and political science. Describes and examines game theory and network science, providing readers with the rigorous quantitative foundation needed to link concepts across widely varying systems Structured to proceed sequentially through biological systems of increasing structural complexity, genomes, cells, organisms, ecological communities, to understand the nested nature of cooperation Includes key term lists, practice exercises, and detailed answers for reader engagement

Cooperation and Its Evolution

Cooperation and Its Evolution
Author: Kim Sterelny,Richard Joyce,Brett Calcott,Ben Fraser
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 587
Release: 2013-02-22
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780262018531

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Essays from a range of disciplinary perspectives show the central role that cooperation plays in structuring our world. This collection reports on the latest research on an increasingly pivotal issue for evolutionary biology: cooperation. The chapters are written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives and utilize research tools that range from empirical survey to conceptual modeling, reflecting the rich diversity of work in the field. They explore a wide taxonomic range, concentrating on bacteria, social insects, and, especially, humans. Part I ("Agents and Environments") investigates the connections of social cooperation in social organizations to the conditions that make cooperation profitable and stable, focusing on the interactions of agent, population, and environment. Part II ("Agents and Mechanisms") focuses on how proximate mechanisms emerge and operate in the evolutionary process and how they shape evolutionary trajectories. Throughout the book, certain themes emerge that demonstrate the ubiquity of questions regarding cooperation in evolutionary biology: the generation and division of the profits of cooperation; transitions in individuality; levels of selection, from gene to organism; and the "human cooperation explosion" that makes our own social behavior particularly puzzling from an evolutionary perspective.

Meeting at Grand Central

Meeting at Grand Central
Author: Lee Cronk,Beth L. Leech
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 261
Release: 2012-10-28
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781400845484

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A revolutionary approach to the study of cooperation that unites evolutionary biology and the social sciences From the family to the workplace to the marketplace, every facet of our lives is shaped by cooperative interactions. Yet everywhere we look, we are confronted by proof of how difficult cooperation can be—snarled traffic, polarized politics, overexploited resources, social problems that go ignored. The benefits to oneself of a free ride on the efforts of others mean that collective goals often are not met. But compared to most other species, people actually cooperate a great deal. Why is this? Meeting at Grand Central brings together insights from evolutionary biology, political science, economics, anthropology, and other fields to explain how the interactions between our evolved selves and the institutional structures we have created make cooperation possible. The book begins with a look at the ideas of Mancur Olson and George Williams, who shifted the question of why cooperation happens from an emphasis on group benefits to individual costs. It then explores how these ideas have influenced our thinking about cooperation, coordination, and collective action. The book persuasively argues that cooperation and its failures are best explained by evolutionary and social theories working together. Selection sometimes favors cooperative tendencies, while institutions, norms, and incentives encourage and make possible actual cooperation. Meeting at Grand Central will inspire researchers from different disciplines and intellectual traditions to share ideas and advance our understanding of cooperative behavior in a world that is more complex than ever before.

Game Theory and Experimental Games

Game Theory and Experimental Games
Author: Andrew M. Colman
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2016-06-06
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9781483137148

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Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction focuses on the development of game theory, taking into consideration empirical research, theoretical formulations, and research procedures involved. The book proceeds with a discussion on the theory of one-person games. The individual decision that a player makes in these kinds of games is noted as influential as to the outcome of these games. This discussion is followed by a presentation of pure coordination games and minimal situation. The ability of players to anticipate the choices of others to achieve a mutually beneficial outcome is emphasized. A favorable social situation is also influential in these kinds of games. The text moves forward by presenting studies on various kinds of competitive games. The research studies presented are coupled with empirical evidence and discussion designed to support the claims that are pointed out. The book also discusses several kinds of approaches in the study of games. Voting as a way to resolve multi-person games is also emphasized, including voting procedures, the preferences of voters, and voting strategies. The book is a valuable source of data for readers and scholars who are interested in the exploration of game theories.

The Evolution of Social Behaviour

The Evolution of Social Behaviour
Author: Michael Taborsky,Michael A. Cant,Jan Komdeur
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 429
Release: 2021-08-26
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781107011182

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First book to outline the fundamental principles of social evolution underlying the stunning diversity of social systems and behaviours.

Cooperation and Its Evolution

Cooperation and Its Evolution
Author: Kim Sterelny,Richard Joyce,Brett Calcott,Ben Fraser
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 587
Release: 2013-02-22
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780262313049

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Essays from a range of disciplinary perspectives show the central role that cooperation plays in structuring our world. This collection reports on the latest research on an increasingly pivotal issue for evolutionary biology: cooperation. The chapters are written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives and utilize research tools that range from empirical survey to conceptual modeling, reflecting the rich diversity of work in the field. They explore a wide taxonomic range, concentrating on bacteria, social insects, and, especially, humans. Part I ("Agents and Environments") investigates the connections of social cooperation in social organizations to the conditions that make cooperation profitable and stable, focusing on the interactions of agent, population, and environment. Part II ("Agents and Mechanisms") focuses on how proximate mechanisms emerge and operate in the evolutionary process and how they shape evolutionary trajectories. Throughout the book, certain themes emerge that demonstrate the ubiquity of questions regarding cooperation in evolutionary biology: the generation and division of the profits of cooperation; transitions in individuality; levels of selection, from gene to organism; and the "human cooperation explosion" that makes our own social behavior particularly puzzling from an evolutionary perspective.

A Cooperative Species

A Cooperative Species
Author: Samuel Bowles,Herbert Gintis
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 274
Release: 2013-07-21
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780691158167

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Why do humans, uniquely among animals, cooperate in large numbers to advance projects for the common good? Contrary to the conventional wisdom in biology and economics, this generous and civic-minded behavior is widespread and cannot be explained simply by far-sighted self-interest or a desire to help close genealogical kin. In A Cooperative Species, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis--pioneers in the new experimental and evolutionary science of human behavior--show that the central issue is not why selfish people act generously, but instead how genetic and cultural evolution has produced a species in which substantial numbers make sacrifices to uphold ethical norms and to help even total strangers. The authors describe how, for thousands of generations, cooperation with fellow group members has been essential to survival. Groups that created institutions to protect the civic-minded from exploitation by the selfish flourished and prevailed in conflicts with less cooperative groups. Key to this process was the evolution of social emotions such as shame and guilt, and our capacity to internalize social norms so that acting ethically became a personal goal rather than simply a prudent way to avoid punishment. Using experimental, archaeological, genetic, and ethnographic data to calibrate models of the coevolution of genes and culture as well as prehistoric warfare and other forms of group competition, A Cooperative Species provides a compelling and novel account of how humans came to be moral and cooperative.