Epidemic Orientalism

Epidemic Orientalism
Author: Alexandre I. R. White
Publsiher: Stanford University Press
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2023-01-24
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781503634138

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For many residents of Western nations, COVID-19 was the first time they experienced the effects of an uncontrolled epidemic. This is in part due to a series of little-known regulations that have aimed to protect the global north from epidemic threats for the last two centuries, starting with International Sanitary Conferences in 1851 and culminating in the present with the International Health Regulations, which organize epidemic responses through the World Health Organization. Unlike other equity-focused global health initiatives, their mission—to establish "the maximum protections from infectious disease with the minimum effect on trade and traffic"—has remained the same since their founding. Using this as his starting point, Alexandre White reveals the Western capitalist interests, racism and xenophobia, and political power plays underpinning the regulatory efforts that came out of the project to manage the international spread of infectious disease. He examines how these regulations are formatted; how their framers conceive of epidemic spread; and the types of bodies and spaces it is suggested that these regulations map onto. Proposing a modified reinterpretation of Edward Said's concept of orientalism, White invites us to consider "epidemic orientalism" as a framework within which to explore the imperial and colonial roots of modern epidemic disease control.

Epidemic Orientalism

Epidemic Orientalism
Author: Alexandre I. R. White
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 0
Release: 2018
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1350874199

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This dissertation examines how certain epidemic outbreaks become "global threats", that is, diseases that become the focus of international regulations and organized responses while others do not. To answer this question, this dissertation draws upon archival data collected at the World Health Organization (WHO) archives in Geneva, the Western Cape Archives in Cape Town, the British Library, British National Archives, the Wellcome Library Archives in London, and twelve qualitative interviews with senior global health actors in order to analyze five cases when disease threats were prioritized internationally as well as how these constructions patterned responses to outbreaks. I begin by exploring the formation of the first international disease controls in the 19th century, the International Sanitary Conventions, created to prevent the spread of three diseases- plague, cholera and yellow fever. I probe how these earliest conventions patterned responses to diseases covered under them and limited responses to those beyond their scope. E xamining how these conventions transformed, I explore why the same disease priorities were maintained by the WHO in their International Sanitary Regulations of the 1950's. Finally, I analyze the transformation of the International Health Regulations in 2005 and its effects on the assessment of disease threat. This dissertation shows that three factors structure the construction of disease threat: epidemic orientalism, economic concerns and field dynamics. Epidemic Orientalism, a discourse motivating the construction of disease threat that first emerged in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, positioned the colonized world as the space from which Europe and the Imperial powers needed to be protected. This orientalist gaze prioritizes the control of diseases emanating from colonial sites that threaten international trade and commerce and has been re-inscribed in all past and present regulations. These factors explain how and why plague, cholera and yellow fever came to be maintained as the primary diseases of international concern until the 21st century. As the WHO has recently been challenged in its authority to manage disease threats, these two factors are also mediated by the WHO's manipulation of symbolic power within a new field of infectious disease management which conditions responses to outbreaks today.

Vulnerable Minds

Vulnerable Minds
Author: Liya Yu
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 167
Release: 2022-08-16
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 9780231553544

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Neuroscience research has raised a troubling possibility: Could the tendency to stigmatize others be innate? Some evidence suggests that the brain is prone to in-group and out-group classifications, with consequences from ordinary blind spots to full-scale dehumanization. Many are inclined to reject the argument that racism and discrimination could have a cognitive basis. Yet if we are all vulnerable to thinking in exclusionary ways—if everyone, from the most ardent social-justice advocates to bigots and xenophobes, has mental patterns and structures in common—could this shared flaw open new prospects for political rapprochement? Liya Yu develops a novel political framework that builds on neuroscientific discoveries to rethink the social contract. She argues that our political selves should be understood in terms of our shared social capacities, especially our everyday exclusionary tendencies. Yu contends that cognitive dehumanization is the most crucial disruptor of cooperation and solidarity, and liberal values-based discourse is inadequate against it. She advances a new neuropolitical language of persuasion that refrains from moralizing or shaming and instead appeals to shared neurobiological vulnerabilities. Offering practical strategies to address those we disagree with most strongly, Vulnerable Minds provides timely guidance on meeting the challenge of including and humanizing others.

Plague and Contagion in the Islamic Mediterranean

Plague and Contagion in the Islamic Mediterranean
Author: Nükhet Varlik
Publsiher: Black Sea World
Total Pages: 315
Release: 2017
Genre: Communicable diseases
ISBN: 1942401159

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The first comprehensive volume of articles on plague and other diseases that afflicted humans and animals in the Ottoman Empire--from the Black Death to the fall of the empire.

Epidemic Empire

Epidemic Empire
Author: Anjuli Fatima Raza Kolb
Publsiher: University of Chicago Press
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2021-02-09
Genre: Literary Criticism
ISBN: 9780226739496

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Terrorism is a cancer, an infection, an epidemic, a plague. For more than a century, this metaphor has figured insurgent violence as contagion in order to contain its political energies. In Epidemic Empire, Anjuli Fatima Raza Kolb shows that this trope began in responses to the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and tracks its tenacious hold through 9/11 and beyond. The result is the first book-length study to approach the global War on Terror from a postcolonial literary perspective. Raza Kolb assembles a diverse archive from colonial India, imperial Britain, French and independent Algeria, the postcolonial Islamic diaspora, and the neoimperial United States. Anchoring her book are studies of four major writers in the colonial-postcolonial canon: Rudyard Kipling, Bram Stoker, Albert Camus, and Salman Rushdie. Across these sources, she reveals the tendency to imagine anticolonial rebellion, and Muslim insurgency specifically, as a virulent form of social contagion. Exposing the long history of this broken but persistent narrative, Epidemic Empire is a major contribution to the rhetorical history of our present moment.

I Know Who Caused COVID 19

   I Know Who Caused COVID 19
Author: Zhou Xun,Sander L. Gilman
Publsiher: Reaktion Books
Total Pages: 180
Release: 2021-10-06
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781789145083

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A timely exploration of the global explosion in xenophobia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through a close analysis of four cases from around the world, this book explores prejudice toward groups who are thought to have caused and spread COVID-19: the residents of Wuhan and Black African communities in China; ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities in the United States, United Kingdom, and Israel; African-Americans in the United States and Black/Asian/mixed ethnic communities in the United Kingdom; and White right-wing groups in the United States and Europe. The authors examine stereotyping and the false attribution of blame towards these groups, as well as what happens when a collective is actually at fault, and how the community deals with these conflicting issues. This is a timely, cogent examination of the blame and xenophobia that have been brought to the surface by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Theories of Race and Racism

Theories of Race and Racism
Author: Les Back,John Solomos
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 1229
Release: 2022-05-17
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781000567793

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Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader provides an overview of historical and contemporary debates in this vital and ever-evolving field of scholarship and research. Combining contributions from seminal thinkers, leading scholars and emergent voices, this reader provides a critical reflection on key trends and developments in the field. The contributions to this reader provide an overview of key areas of scholarship and research on questions of race and racism. It provides a novel perspective by bringing together readings on the key theoretical and historical processes in this area, the development of diverse theoretical viewpoints, the analysis of antisemitism, the role of colonialism and postcolonialism, feminist perspectives on race and the articulation of new accounts of the contemporary conjuncture. The contributions to this reader include classic works by the likes of W.E.B. DuBois, Stuart Hall and Frantz Fanon as well as timely pieces by contemporary scholars including Orlando Patterson, Patricia Hill Collins and Paul Gilroy. By bringing together a broad range of diverse accounts, Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader engages with various key areas of interest and is an invaluable guide for students and instructors seeking to explore issues of race and racism.

The COVID Pandemic Essays Book Reviews and Poems

The COVID Pandemic  Essays  Book Reviews  and Poems
Author: Therese Jones,Kathleen Pachucki
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 203
Release: 2022-12-02
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9783031192319

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This book contains several critical essays, book reviews, and poems that address the current pandemic to mark a sad but hopeful first anniversary of COVID. Similar to many academic journals, the Journal of Medical Humanities, in which these contributions were first published, has received a number of submissions during the first year of the pandemic relating directly to it. In the early months, the journal saw an unprecedented number of poetry submissions from physicians who seemed to be turning to verse as a way to memorialize what was happening, to find ways of healing from the devastating number of dying patients, and to capture the exhaustion and anxiety of caring for others day after day without respite. By publishing this selection, the volume editors honor and thank all those who have been caring for patients, teaching and mentoring students, and as such have been contributing to our understanding and awareness of this crisis. Previously published in Journal of Medical Humanities, Volume 42, issue 1, March 2021 Chapters “COVID-19, Contagion, and Vaccine Optimism”, “Virile Infertile Men, and Other Representations of In/Fertile Hegemonic Masculinity in Fiction Television Series”, “Movement as Method: Some Existential and Epistemological Reflections on Dance in the Health Humanities” and “The Ethic of Responsibility: Max Weber’s Verstehen and Shared Decision-Making in Patient-Centred Care” are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.