Mathematics and Democracy

Mathematics and Democracy
Author: Steven J. Brams
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 390
Release: 2009-12-02
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781400835591

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Voters today often desert a preferred candidate for a more viable second choice to avoid wasting their vote. Likewise, parties to a dispute often find themselves unable to agree on a fair division of contested goods. In Mathematics and Democracy, Steven Brams, a leading authority in the use of mathematics to design decision-making processes, shows how social-choice and game theory could make political and social institutions more democratic. Using mathematical analysis, he develops rigorous new procedures that enable voters to better express themselves and that allow disputants to divide goods more fairly. One of the procedures that Brams proposes is "approval voting," which allows voters to vote for as many candidates as they like or consider acceptable. There is no ranking, and the candidate with the most votes wins. The voter no longer has to consider whether a vote for a preferred but less popular candidate might be wasted. In the same vein, Brams puts forward new, more equitable procedures for resolving disputes over divisible and indivisible goods.

Mathematics to the Rescue of Democracy

Mathematics to the Rescue of Democracy
Author: Paolo Serafini
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 138
Release: 2020-03-02
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9783030383688

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This book explains, in a straightforward way, the foundations upon which electoral techniques are based in order to shed new light on what we actually do when we vote. The intention is to highlight the fact that no matter how an electoral system has been designed, and regardless of the intentions of those who devised the system, there will be goals that are impossible to achieve but also opportunities for improving the situation in an informed way. While detailed descriptions of electoral systems are not provided, many references are made to current or past situations, both as examples and to underline particular problems and shortcomings. In addition, a new voting method that avoids the many paradoxes of voting theory is described in detail. While some knowledge of mathematics is required in order to gain the most from the book, every effort has been made to ensure that the subject matter is easily accessible for non-mathematicians, too. In short, this is a book for anyone who wants to understand the meaning of voting.

Numbers Rule

Numbers Rule
Author: George Szpiro
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2020-11-03
Genre: History
ISBN: 9780691209081

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The author takes the general reader on a tour of the mathematical puzzles and paradoxes inherent in voting systems, such as the Alabama Paradox, in which an increase in the number of seats in the Congress could actually lead to a reduced number of representatives for a state, and the Condorcet Paradox, which demonstrates that the winner of elections featuring more than two candidates does not necessarily reflect majority preferences. Szpiro takes a roughly chronological approach to the topic, traveling from ancient Greece to the present and, in addition to offering explanations of the various mathematical conundrums of elections and voting, also offers biographical details on the mathematicians and other thinkers who thought about them, including Plato, Pliny the Younger, Pierre Simon Laplace, Thomas Jefferson, John von Neumann, and Kenneth Arrow.

Mathematics and Democracy

Mathematics and Democracy
Author: Bruno Simeone,Friedrich Pukelsheim
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2007-01-09
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9783540356059

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In this book, different quantitative approaches to the study of electoral systems have been developed: game-theoretic, decision-theoretic, statistical, probabilistic, combinatorial, geometric, and optimization ones. All the authors are prominent scholars from these disciplines. Quantitative approaches offer a powerful tool to detect inconsistencies or poor performance in actual systems. Applications to concrete settings such as EU, American Congress, regional, and committee voting are discussed.

Democracy and Mathematics Education

Democracy and Mathematics Education
Author: Kurt Stemhagen,Catherine Henney
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 239
Release: 2021-05-06
Genre: Education
ISBN: 9781000378139

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In Democracy and Mathematics Education, Kurt Stemhagen and Catherine Henney develop a way of thinking about the nature and purposes of math that is inclusive, participatory, and thoroughly human. They use these ideas to create a school mathematics experience that can enhance students’ math abilities and democratic potential. They locate mathematics’ origins in human activity and highlight the rich but often overlooked links between mathematical activity and democratic, social practices. Democratic mathematics education foregrounds student inquiry and brings to light the moral dimensions of a discipline that has both remarkable utility and inevitable limitations. For math educators, the book’s humanities approach helps to see the subject anew. For philosophers, it provides an important real world context for wrestling with perennial and timely questions, engaging democratic and evolutionary theory to transform school math. This alternative approach to mathematics and mathematics education provides a guide for how to use math to make democracy a larger part of school and wider social life. 2021 Winner of the AESA Critics’ Choice Book Award.

Weapons of Math Destruction

Weapons of Math Destruction
Author: Cathy O'Neil
Publsiher: Crown Publishing Group (NY)
Total Pages: 274
Release: 2016
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780553418811

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"A former Wall Street quantitative analyst sounds an alarm on mathematical modeling, a pervasive new force in society that threatens to undermine democracy and widen inequality,"--NoveList.

Mathematical Theory of Democracy

Mathematical Theory of Democracy
Author: Andranik Tangian
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 629
Release: 2013-07-31
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9783642387241

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The mathematical theory of democracy deals with selection of representatives who make decisions on behalf of the whole society. In this book, the notion of representativeness is operationalized with the index of popularity (the average percentage of the population whose opinion is represented on a number of issues) and the index of universality (the frequency of cases when the opinion of a majority is represented). These indices are applied to evaluate and study the properties of single representatives (e.g. president) and representative bodies (e.g. parliament, magistrate, cabinet, jury, coalition). To bridge representative and direct democracy, an election method is proposed that is based not on voting but on indexing candidates with respect to the electorate’s political profile. In addition, societal and non-societal applications are considered.

Mathematics and Democracy

Mathematics and Democracy
Author: Steven J. Brams
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 396
Release: 2008
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: UVA:X030355666

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Voters today often desert a preferred candidate for a more viable second choice to avoid wasting their vote. Likewise, parties to a dispute often find themselves unable to agree on a fair division of contested goods. In Mathematics and Democracy, Steven Brams, a leading authority in the use of mathematics to design decision-making processes, shows how social-choice and game theory could make political and social institutions more democratic. Using mathematical analysis, he develops rigorous new procedures that enable voters to better express themselves and that allow disputants to divide goods more fairly. One of the procedures that Brams proposes is "approval voting," which allows voters to vote for as many candidates as they like or consider acceptable. There is no ranking, and the candidate with the most votes wins. The voter no longer has to consider whether a vote for a preferred but less popular candidate might be wasted. In the same vein, Brams puts forward new, more equitable procedures for resolving disputes over divisible and indivisible goods.