Microbes Microbial Metabolism and Mucosal Immunity

Microbes  Microbial Metabolism and Mucosal Immunity
Author: Tanima Bose
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 0
Release: 2023-12-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0323901441

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The study of microbiome and microbial metabolites and their roles in host mucosal immunology is a rapidly developing area of research. One major way in which the microbiome influences the host is through altered metabolism. Metabolites, readily available to the host, engender significant consequences. Microbial metabolites have been shown to impact the disease processes in both proximal and distal organs, including the brain in several neurocognitive disorders. Microbes, Microbial Metabolism and Mucosal Immunity: An Overview presents a concise and well-vetted treatise on the study of microbiome and microbial metabolites. This volume is up-to-date with the most recent developments from the last decade. It encompasses the interaction of immunity and microbes - and their metabolites - from different mucosal organs including eye, skin, gastrointestinal system, lung, intestine and cervix. Along with the efficiency of the immune system in inhibiting the growth and proliferation of microbes, the volume discusses how the mediators of the immune system can be targeted to develop therapies. This book presents the latest methods, gives broad and systematic coverage of most mucosal systems and diseases, and takes a fresh perspective that looks at the functional aspects of change in the microbiome.

Gut Microbiota Immunity and Health in Production Animals

Gut Microbiota  Immunity  and Health in Production Animals
Author: Michael H. Kogut,Glenn Zhang
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2022-01-19
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030903039

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This work sheds new light on the interplay between the gut, gut microbiota, and host physiological processes in production animals. The gut microbiome shapes health and susceptibility to disease and has become a leading area of research in the animal sciences. Gut health encompasses a number of physiological and functional features. Nutrient digestion and absorption, host metabolism and energy generation, a stable microbiome, mucus layer development, barrier function, and mucosal immune responses; all of which are required to interact to make an animal perform physiologically and according to its greatest genetic potential. This carefully presented book broadens our vision, approach and results on gut health and the ability to regulate animal production. Understanding the chemistry of microbiomes has broad implications, including providing functional annotations for the microbial genomes, insights into the chemical languages that link microbes to each other and to their host, and translational implications for precision veterinary medicine, environmental health, and sustainable animal agriculture and welfare. Experts working in microbiome research, host immunity, and animal production, veterinarians and researchers in livestock science will understand the great importance of this volume.

Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short Chain Fatty Acids

Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short Chain Fatty Acids
Author: John H. Cummings,John L. Rombeau,Takashi Sakata
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 602
Release: 2004-12-02
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0521616131

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This is the first comprehensive volume to look at the importance of short-chain fatty acids in digestion, the function of the large intestine and their role in human health. Short-chain fatty acids are the major product of bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates in the human and animal large intestine. They represent the major end products of digestive processes occurring in the caecum and large intestine. As such, they form an important dietary component and it is increasingly recognised that they may have a significant role in protecting against large bowel cancer and in metabolism. Prepared by an international team of contributors who are at the forefront of this area of research, this volume will be an essential source of reference for gastroenterologists, nutritionists and others active in this area.

Microbial Endocrinology

Microbial Endocrinology
Author: Mark Lyte,Primrose P.E. Freestone
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 325
Release: 2010-04-06
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781441955760

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Microbial endocrinology represents a newly emerging interdisciplinary field that is formed by the intersection of the fields of neurobiology and microbiology. This book will introduce a new perspective to the current understanding not only of the factors that mediate the ability of microbes to cause disease, but also to the mechanisms that maintain normal homeostasis. The discovery that microbes can directly respond to neuroendocrine hormones, as evidenced by increased growth and production of virulence-associated factors, provides for a new framework with which to investigate how microorganisms interface not only with vertebrates, but also with invertebrates and even plants. The reader will learn that the neuroendocrine hormones that one most commonly associates with mammals are actually found throughout the plant, insect and microbial communities to an extent that will undoubtedly surprise many, and most importantly, how interactions between microbes and neuroendocrine hormones can influence the pathophysiology of infectious disease.

Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease

Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease
Author: M. Donald McGavin
Publsiher: Mosby
Total Pages: 0
Release: 2007
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0323028705

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The 4th edition of this textbook, now in full color, presents both general pathology and special pathology in one comprehensive resource. Coverage includes a brief review of basic principles related to anatomy, structure and function, followed by congenital and functional abnormalities and discussions of viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections and neoplasia. Logically organized chapters discuss normal functions of the body system, followed by pathologic conditions found in domestic and companion animals. While focusing primarily on diseases in North America, the text also includes pathologic conditions found in other parts of the world, as well as those being brought into this country, such as West Nile virus, through the importation of cattle, sheep, and other animals. Contributors are recognized in their area of expertise and are well known in research and education. Now in full color throughout with vivid new illustrations that clarify difficult concepts. Includes six new chapters covering general pathology that discuss topics such as cellular and tissue responses to injury, vascular disorders, inflammation, and tumor biology. All chapters emphasize mechanisms of disease (organ, tissue, cell, and molecular injury). Features sequential presentations of disease processes (portal of entry * target cells * cellular injury * visual appearance of injury * resolution of injury * clinical outcomes). Emphasizes portals of entry for microbes and injurious agents. Focuses on defense mechanisms against microbes and injurious agents.

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease
Author: Dirk Haller
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2018-07-27
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783319905457

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The book provides an overview on how the gut microbiome contributes to human health. The readers will get profound knowledge on the connection between intestinal microbiota and immune defense systems. The tools of choice to study the ecology of these highly-specialized microorganism communities such as high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic mining will be presented. In addition the most common diseases associated to the composition of the gut flora are discussed in detail. The book will address researchers, clinicians and advanced students working in biomedicine, microbiology and immunology.

Current Cancer Treatment

Current Cancer Treatment
Author: Mirjana Rajer,Eva Segelov
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2020-06-24
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781789859676

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This book is a collection of in-depth chapters on many aspects of contemporary cancer treatment. Written by experts worldwide, each chapter provides a detailed summary of the state-of-the art knowledge in the area, with extensive references and clear and informative diagrams. The volume is divided into two sections: “Basic Science” and “Clinical Challenges.” The five chapters in the first section cover MicroRNA, the role of angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, microbial metabolites in the gastrointestinal microenvironment, the role of dendritic cells in anti-tumor immunity, and challenges of current cancer biomarkers. The two chapters in the second section cover pediatric CNS tumors and the role of sentinel node biopsy in endometrial cancer. The information in this book is designed for cancer clinicians and interested readers to whom this knowledge is important for focusing research and improving patient outcomes.

Ending the War Metaphor

Ending the War Metaphor
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2006-07-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309096010

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Infectious diseases have existed longer than us, as long as us, or are relatively newer than us. It may be the case that a disease has existed for many, many years but has only recently begun affecting humans. At the turn of the century the number of deaths caused by infections in the United States had been falling steadily but since the '80s has seen an increase. In the past 30 years alone 37 new pathogens have been identified as human disease threats and 12% of known human pathogens have been classified as either emerging or remerging. Whatever the story, there is currently a "war" on infectious diseases. This war is simply the systematic search for the microbial "cause" of each disease, followed by the development of antimicrobial therapies. The "war" on infectious diseases, however, must be revisited in order to develop a more realistic and detailed picture of the dynamic interactions among and between host organisms and their diverse populations of microbes. Only a fraction of these microbes are pathogens. Thus, in order to explore the crafting of a new metaphor for host-microbe relationships, and to consider how such a new perspective might inform and prioritize biomedical research, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the workshop, Ending the War Metaphor: The Changing Agenda for Unraveling the Host-Microbe Relationship on March 16-17, 2005. Workshop participants examined knowledge and approaches to learning about the bacterial inhabitants of the human gut, the best known host-microbe system, as well as findings from studies of microbial communities associated with other mammals, fish, plants, soil, and insects. The perspective adopted by this workshop is one that recognizes the breadth and diversity of host-microbe relationships beyond those relative few that result in overt disease. Included in this summary are the reports and papers of individuals participating in the Forum as well as the views of the editors.