# Computability Theory

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### The Foundations of Computability Theory

Author | : Borut Robič |

Publsiher | : Springer |

Total Pages | : 341 |

Release | : 2015-09-14 |

Genre | : Computers |

ISBN | : 9783662448083 |

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This book offers an original and informative view of the development of fundamental concepts of computability theory. The treatment is put into historical context, emphasizing the motivation for ideas as well as their logical and formal development. In Part I the author introduces computability theory, with chapters on the foundational crisis of mathematics in the early twentieth century, and formalism; in Part II he explains classical computability theory, with chapters on the quest for formalization, the Turing Machine, and early successes such as defining incomputable problems, c.e. (computably enumerable) sets, and developing methods for proving incomputability; in Part III he explains relative computability, with chapters on computation with external help, degrees of unsolvability, the Turing hierarchy of unsolvability, the class of degrees of unsolvability, c.e. degrees and the priority method, and the arithmetical hierarchy. This is a gentle introduction from the origins of computability theory up to current research, and it will be of value as a textbook and guide for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the domains of computability theory and theoretical computer science.

### Turing Computability

Author | : Robert I. Soare |

Publsiher | : Springer |

Total Pages | : 289 |

Release | : 2016-06-20 |

Genre | : Computers |

ISBN | : 9783642319334 |

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Turing's famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.

### Computability Theory

Author | : S. Barry Cooper |

Publsiher | : CRC Press |

Total Pages | : 420 |

Release | : 2017-09-06 |

Genre | : Mathematics |

ISBN | : 9781420057560 |

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Computability theory originated with the seminal work of Gödel, Church, Turing, Kleene and Post in the 1930s. This theory includes a wide spectrum of topics, such as the theory of reducibilities and their degree structures, computably enumerable sets and their automorphisms, and subrecursive hierarchy classifications. Recent work in computability theory has focused on Turing definability and promises to have far-reaching mathematical, scientific, and philosophical consequences. Written by a leading researcher, Computability Theory provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary computability theory, techniques, and results. The basic concepts and techniques of computability theory are placed in their historical, philosophical and logical context. This presentation is characterized by an unusual breadth of coverage and the inclusion of advanced topics not to be found elsewhere in the literature at this level. The book includes both the standard material for a first course in computability and more advanced looks at degree structures, forcing, priority methods, and determinacy. The final chapter explores a variety of computability applications to mathematics and science. Computability Theory is an invaluable text, reference, and guide to the direction of current research in the field. Nowhere else will you find the techniques and results of this beautiful and basic subject brought alive in such an approachable and lively way.

### Computability and Complexity Theory

Author | : Steven Homer,Alan L. Selman |

Publsiher | : Springer Science & Business Media |

Total Pages | : 310 |

Release | : 2011-12-09 |

Genre | : Computers |

ISBN | : 9781461406815 |

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This revised and extensively expanded edition of Computability and Complexity Theory comprises essential materials that are core knowledge in the theory of computation. The book is self-contained, with a preliminary chapter describing key mathematical concepts and notations. Subsequent chapters move from the qualitative aspects of classical computability theory to the quantitative aspects of complexity theory. Dedicated chapters on undecidability, NP-completeness, and relative computability focus on the limitations of computability and the distinctions between feasible and intractable. Substantial new content in this edition includes: a chapter on nonuniformity studying Boolean circuits, advice classes and the important result of Karp─Lipton. a chapter studying properties of the fundamental probabilistic complexity classes a study of the alternating Turing machine and uniform circuit classes. an introduction of counting classes, proving the famous results of Valiant and Vazirani and of Toda a thorough treatment of the proof that IP is identical to PSPACE With its accessibility and well-devised organization, this text/reference is an excellent resource and guide for those looking to develop a solid grounding in the theory of computing. Beginning graduates, advanced undergraduates, and professionals involved in theoretical computer science, complexity theory, and computability will find the book an essential and practical learning tool. Topics and features: Concise, focused materials cover the most fundamental concepts and results in the field of modern complexity theory, including the theory of NP-completeness, NP-hardness, the polynomial hierarchy, and complete problems for other complexity classes Contains information that otherwise exists only in research literature and presents it in a unified, simplified manner Provides key mathematical background information, including sections on logic and number theory and algebra Supported by numerous exercises and supplementary problems for reinforcement and self-study purposes

### Computability Theory

Author | : Rebecca Weber |

Publsiher | : American Mathematical Soc. |

Total Pages | : 218 |

Release | : 2012 |

Genre | : Mathematics |

ISBN | : 9780821873922 |

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What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including relations, recursion, induction, and logical and set notation and operators. That background, along with ample explanation, examples, exercises, and suggestions for further reading, make this book ideal for independent study or courses with few prerequisites.

### Models of Computation

Author | : Maribel Fernandez |

Publsiher | : Springer Science & Business Media |

Total Pages | : 188 |

Release | : 2009-04-14 |

Genre | : Computers |

ISBN | : 9781848824348 |

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A Concise Introduction to Computation Models and Computability Theory provides an introduction to the essential concepts in computability, using several models of computation, from the standard Turing Machines and Recursive Functions, to the modern computation models inspired by quantum physics. An in-depth analysis of the basic concepts underlying each model of computation is provided. Divided into two parts, the first highlights the traditional computation models used in the first studies on computability: - Automata and Turing Machines; - Recursive functions and the Lambda-Calculus; - Logic-based computation models. and the second part covers object-oriented and interaction-based models. There is also a chapter on concurrency, and a final chapter on emergent computation models inspired by quantum mechanics. At the end of each chapter there is a discussion on the use of computation models in the design of programming languages.

### Handbook of Computability Theory

Author | : E.R. Griffor |

Publsiher | : Elsevier |

Total Pages | : 741 |

Release | : 1999-10-01 |

Genre | : Mathematics |

ISBN | : 9780080533049 |

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The chapters of this volume all have their own level of presentation. The topics have been chosen based on the active research interest associated with them. Since the interest in some topics is older than that in others, some presentations contain fundamental definitions and basic results while others relate very little of the elementary theory behind them and aim directly toward an exposition of advanced results. Presentations of the latter sort are in some cases restricted to a short survey of recent results (due to the complexity of the methods and proofs themselves). Hence the variation in level of presentation from chapter to chapter only reflects the conceptual situation itself. One example of this is the collective efforts to develop an acceptable theory of computation on the real numbers. The last two decades has seen at least two new definitions of effective operations on the real numbers.

### Theories of Computability

Author | : Nicholas Pippenger |

Publsiher | : Cambridge University Press |

Total Pages | : 268 |

Release | : 1997-05-28 |

Genre | : Computers |

ISBN | : 0521553806 |

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A mathematically sophisticated introduction to Turing's theory, Boolean functions, automata, and formal languages.