Essential Concepts In Clinical Research
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Essential Concepts in Clinical Research
|Author||: Kenneth Schulz,David A. Grimes|
|Publsiher||: Elsevier Health Sciences|
|Total Pages||: 272|
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This practical guide speaks to two audiences: those who read and those who conduct research. Clinicians are medical detectives by training. For each patient, they assemble clinical clues to establish causes of signs and symptoms. The task involves both clinical acumen and knowledge of medical research. This book helps guide clinicians through this detective work, by enabling them to make sense of research and to review medical literature critically. It will also be invaluable to researchers who conduct clinical research, particularly randomized controlled trials. Building on previously published, peer-reviewed articles from The Lancet, this handbook is essential for busy clinicians and active researchers interested in research methods. Written by leaders in the field of clinical research who have published extensively with authorship of hundreds of articles in medical journals. The authorship includes one of the three authors of the CONSORT guidelines for the reporting of randomized controlled trials. The book presents the essential concepts to a wide array of topics including randomized control trials, descriptive studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, bias, and screening tests. The book utilises a readable and humorous prose style, lightening what can be a difficult area for clinical readers. Derived from decades of teaching clinical research in seminar settings the book will empower clinicians to make sense of, and critically appraise, current medical research and will enable researchers to enrich the quality of their work. The updated new edition includes six new chapters: Surrogate endpoints Limitations of observational epidemiology Participant recruitment Practicalities of double-blinding Randomized trials in the context of a prospective meta-analysis Reporting studies in medical journals: CONSORT
The Lancet Handbook of Essential Concepts in Clinical Research
|Author||: Kenneth F. Schulz,David A. Grimes|
|Publsiher||: Elsevier Health Sciences TW|
|Total Pages||: 248|
|Genre||: Clinical medicine|
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"The Lancet Handbook of Essential Concepts in Clinical Research speaks to two audiences: those who read and those who conduct research. Clinicians are medical detectives by training. For each patient, they assemble clinical clues to establish causes (e.g. diagnoses) of signs and symptoms. The task involves both clinical acumen and knowledge of medical research. This book helps guide clinicians through this detective work, by enabling them to make sense of research and to review medical literature critically. It will also be invaluable to researchers who conduct clinical research, particularly randomized controlled trials. Building on previously published, peer-reviewed articles from The Lancet, this handbook is essential for busy clinicians and active researchers interested in research methods."--BOOK JACKET.
Essentials of Clinical Research
|Author||: Stephen P. Glasser|
|Total Pages||: 461|
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In its extensively revised and updated Second Edition, this book provides a solid foundation for readers interested in clinical research. Discussion encompasses genetic, pharmacoepidemiologic and implementation research. All chapters have been updated with new information and many new tables have been added to elucidate key points. The book now offers discussion on how to handle missing data when analyzing results, and coverage of Adaptive Designs and Effectiveness Designs and new sections on Comparative Effectiveness Research and Pragmatic Trials. Chapter 6 includes new material on Phase 0 Trials, expanded coverage of Futility Trials, a discussion of Medical Device approval, Off Label Drug use and the role of the FDA in regulating advertising. Additional new information includes the role of pill color and shape in association with the placebo effect and an examination of issues surrounding minority recruitment. The final chapter offers a new section on manuscript preparation along with a discussion of various guidelines being adopted by journals: CONSORT, STROBE, PRISMA, MOOSE and others; and coverage of Conflicts of Interest, Authorship, Coercive Citation, and Disclosures in Industry-Related Associations. Building on the strengths of its predecessor in its comprehensive approach and authoritative advice, the new edition offers more of what has made this book a popular, trusted resource for students and working researchers alike.
Core Concepts in Contemporary Psychoanalysis
|Author||: Morris N. Eagle|
|Total Pages||: 244|
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In Core Concepts in Contemporary Psychoanalysis, alongside its companion piece Core Concepts in Classical Psychoanalysis, Morris N. Eagle asks: of the core concepts and formulations of psychoanalytic theory, which ones should be retained, which should be modified and in what ways, and which should be discarded? The key concepts and issues explored in this book include: Are transference interpretations necessary for positive therapeutic outcomes? Are the analyst’s countertransference reactions a reliable guide to the patient’s unconscious mental states? Is projective identification a coherent concept? Psychoanalytic styles of thinking and writing. Unlike other previous discussions of such concepts, this book systematically evaluates them in the light of conceptual critique as well as recent research-based evidence and empirical data. Written with Eagle’s piercing clarity of voice, Core Concepts in Contemporary Psychoanalysis challenges previously unquestioned psychoanalytic assumptions and will appeal to psychoanalysts, psychoanalytic psychotherapists, and anyone interested in integrating core psychoanalytic concepts, research, and theory with other disciplines including psychiatry, psychology, and social work.
Basic Concepts of Clinical Electrophysiology in Audiology
|Author||: John D. Durrant,Cynthia G. Fowler,John A. Ferraro,Suzanne C. Purdy|
|Publsiher||: Plural Publishing|
|Total Pages||: 475|
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Basic Concepts of Clinical Electrophysiology in Audiology is a revolutionary textbook, combining the research and expertise of both distinguished experts and up-and-coming voices in the field. By taking a multidisciplinary approach to the subject, the editors of this graduate-level text break down all aspects of electrophysiology to make it accessible to audiology students. In addition to defining the basics of the tools of the trade and their routine uses, the authors also provide ample presentations of new approaches currently undergoing continuing research and development. The goal of this textbook is to give developing audiologists a broad and solid basis of understanding of the methods in common or promising practice. Throughout the text, individual chapters are divided into “episodes,” each examining a facet of the overarching chapter’s topic. With different experts handling each episode, readers are exposed to outstanding professionals in the field. This text singularly stitches together the chapters and their episodes to build from foundational concepts to more complex issues that clinicians are likely to face on their road to full clinical competency. As collections of episodes, the writers and editors thus endeavor to present a series of stories that build throughout the book, in turn allowing readers to build a broader interest in the subject. Key Features * Heads Up sections in each chapter introduce more advanced content to expose readers to what lies beyond the basic level and further enhance the main chapter content and “entertainment value” * Take home messages at the end of each chapter serve to focus the reader’s attention, encourage review, and discourage superficial learning by “just reading the abstract” * More than 450 innovative illustrations use combinations of panels, insets, and/or gray tone to facilitate reader understanding, optimize portrayal of data, and unify concepts across chapters * Numerous case studies and references to practical clinical issues and results are included throughout the book * Keywords are highlighted in-text to improve both attention and retention of critical terms and ease of returning to review them
Malignant Liver Tumours Basic Concepts and Clinical Management
|Author||: F. Berr,J. Bruix,J. Hauss,Ch. Wittekind,J. Wands|
|Publsiher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Total Pages||: 242|
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC), both increasing in incidence, have become a major topic of basic and clinical research as well as clinical practice in hepatology. Experts in the field update the current concepts on the carcinogenesis of HCC and CC such as genetic alterations in the pathways of cell cylce and apoptosis regulation, the hypothesis of dedifferentiation of hepatocytes to the malignant phenotype vs that of activation of hepatic progenitor cells incapable of maturation (maturation arrest hypothesis). In spite of an increasing number of genetic alterations described in human HCC as well as cell regulatory pathways tested in experimental HCC models, the key hits causing progression of the cell cycle in imbalance with apoptosis, tissue invasive growth and metastatic potential of cell clones still remain elusive. Very powerful genomic and proteomic techniques are promising insights into the carcinogenesis of liver malignancies that will allow more efficient therapeutic strategies. The current concepts on risk profiling, surveillance of risk groups and therapeutic strategies are evidence-based for HCC and less detailed for CC. Surveillance of risk groups improves detection of liver tumours in curable stages. Best strategies for curative treatment of HCC use neoadjuvant antitumour therapies before liver transplantation and a role is emerging for living donor-related liver transplantation. New palliative therapies for HCC are in the experimental stage with biological response modifiers, including angiogenesis inhibitors, and entering phase II clinical trials with the alpha-fetoprotein derived vaccines.
Designing Clinical Research
|Author||: Stephen B. Hulley,Steven R. Cummings,Warren S. Browner,Deborah G. Grady,Thomas B. Newman|
|Publsiher||: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins|
|Total Pages||: 388|
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Designing Clinical Research sets the standard for providing a practical guide to planning, tabulating, formulating, and implementing clinical research, with an easy-to-read, uncomplicated presentation. This edition incorporates current research methodology—including molecular and genetic clinical research—and offers an updated syllabus for conducting a clinical research workshop. Emphasis is on common sense as the main ingredient of good science. The book explains how to choose well-focused research questions and details the steps through all the elements of study design, data collection, quality assurance, and basic grant-writing. All chapters have been thoroughly revised, updated, and made more user-friendly.
Ethical Conduct of Clinical Research Involving Children
|Author||: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Clinical Research Involving Children|
|Publsiher||: National Academies Press|
|Total Pages||: 445|
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In recent decades, advances in biomedical research have helped save or lengthen the lives of children around the world. With improved therapies, child and adolescent mortality rates have decreased significantly in the last half century. Despite these advances, pediatricians and others argue that children have not shared equally with adults in biomedical advances. Even though we want children to benefit from the dramatic and accelerating rate of progress in medical care that has been fueled by scientific research, we do not want to place children at risk of being harmed by participating in clinical studies. Ethical Conduct of Clinical Research Involving Children considers the necessities and challenges of this type of research and reviews the ethical and legal standards for conducting it. It also considers problems with the interpretation and application of these standards and conduct, concluding that while children should not be excluded from potentially beneficial clinical studies, some research that is ethically permissible for adults is not acceptable for children, who usually do not have the legal capacity or maturity to make informed decisions about research participation. The book looks at the need for appropriate pediatric expertise at all stages of the design, review, and conduct of a research project to effectively implement policies to protect children. It argues persuasively that a robust system for protecting human research participants in general is a necessary foundation for protecting child research participants in particular.