Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization

Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization
Author: Andrei P. Kozlov
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2014-02-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128004982

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Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization explores the possibility of the positive role of tumors in evolution of multicellular organisms. This unique perspective goes beyond recent publications on how evolution may influence tumors, to consider the possible role of tumors in evolution. Widespread in nature tumors represent a much broader category than malignant tumors only. The majority of tumors in humans and other animals may never undergo malignant transformation. Tumors may differentiate with the loss of malignancy, and malignant tumors may spontaneously regress. Cellular oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play roles in normal development. Many features of tumors could be used in evolution, and there are examples of tumors that have played a role in evolution. This book will stimulate thinking on this topic by specialists in the fields of evolutionary biology, oncology, molecular biology, molecular evolution, embryology, evo-devo, tumor immunology, pathology and clinical oncology. Covers the role that tumors might play in evolution. Provides multidisciplinary approach that will appeal to a wide circle of professionals in the fields of evolutionary biology, oncology, molecular biology, and more


Author: Emanuele Serrelli,Nathalie Gontier
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 403
Release: 2015-02-13
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783319150451

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This book is divided in two parts, the first of which shows how, beyond paleontology and systematics, macroevolutionary theories apply key insights from ecology and biogeography, developmental biology, biophysics, molecular phylogenetics and even the sociocultural sciences to explain evolution in deep time. In the second part, the phenomenon of macroevolution is examined with the help of real life-history case studies on the evolution of eukaryotic sex, the formation of anatomical form and body-plans, extinction and speciation events of marine invertebrates, hominin evolution and species conservation ethics. The book brings together leading experts, who explain pivotal concepts such as Punctuated Equilibria, Stasis, Developmental Constraints, Adaptive Radiations, Habitat Tracking, Turnovers, (Mass) Extinctions, Species Sorting, Major Transitions, Trends and Hierarchies – key premises that allow macroevolutionary epistemic frameworks to transcend microevolutionary theories that focus on genetic variation, selection, migration and fitness. Along the way, the contributing authors review ongoing debates and current scientific challenges; detail new and fascinating scientific tools and techniques that allow us to cross the classic borders between disciplines; demonstrate how their theories make it possible to extend the Modern Synthesis; present guidelines on how the macroevolutionary field could be further developed; and provide a rich view of just how it was that life evolved across time and space. In short, this book is a must-read for active scholars and because the technical aspects are fully explained, it is also accessible for non-specialists. Understanding evolution requires a solid grasp of above-population phenomena. Species are real biological individuals and abiotic factors impact the future course of evolution. Beyond observation, when the explanation of macroevolution is the goal, we need both evidence and theory that enable us to explain and interpret how life evolves at the grand scale.

Progress in Botany Vol 81

Progress in Botany Vol  81
Author: Francisco M. Cánovas,Ulrich Lüttge,Christoph Leuschner,María-Carmen Risueño
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 399
Release: 2020-01-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783030363277

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With one volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews on plant physiology, biochemistry, genetics and genomics, forests, and ecosystems.

Evolution after Gene Duplication

Evolution after Gene Duplication
Author: Katharina Dittmar,David Liberles
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2011-06-09
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781118148099

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Gene duplication has long been believed to have played a major role in the rise of biological novelty through evolution of new function and gene expression patterns. The first book to examine gene duplication across all levels of biological organization, Evolution after Gene Duplication presents a comprehensive picture of the mechanistic process by which gene duplication may have played a role in generating biodiversity. Key Features: Explores comparative genomics, genome evolution studies and analysis of multi-gene families such as Hox, globins, olfactory receptors and MHC (immune system) A complete post-genome treatment of the topic originally covered by Ohno's 1970 classic, this volume extends coverage to include the fate of associated regulatory pathways Taps the significant increase in multi-gene family data that has resulted from comparative genomics Comprehensive coverage that includes opposing theoretical viewpoints, comparative genomics data, theoretical and empirical evidence and the role of bioinformatics in the study of gene duplication This up-to-date overview of theory and mathematical models along with practical examples is suitable for scientists across various levels of biology as well as instructors and graduate students.

Homology Genes and Evolutionary Innovation

Homology  Genes  and Evolutionary Innovation
Author: Günter P. Wagner
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 494
Release: 2018-07-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780691180670

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A major synthesis of homology, written by a top researcher in the field Homology—a similar trait shared by different species and derived from common ancestry, such as a seal's fin and a bird’s wing—is one of the most fundamental yet challenging concepts in evolutionary biology. This groundbreaking book provides the first mechanistically based theory of what homology is and how it arises in evolution. Günter Wagner, one of the preeminent researchers in the field, argues that homology, or character identity, can be explained through the historical continuity of character identity networks—that is, the gene regulatory networks that enable differential gene expression. He shows how character identity is independent of the form and function of the character itself because the same network can activate different effector genes and thus control the development of different shapes, sizes, and qualities of the character. Demonstrating how this theoretical model can provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origin of novel characters, Wagner applies it to the origin and evolution of specific systems, such as cell types; skin, hair, and feathers; limbs and digits; and flowers. The first major synthesis of homology to be published in decades, Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation reveals how a mechanistically based theory can serve as a unifying concept for any branch of science concerned with the structure and development of organisms, and how it can help explain major transitions in evolution and broad patterns of biological diversity.

Interactive Web Based Data Visualization with R plotly and shiny

Interactive Web Based Data Visualization with R  plotly  and shiny
Author: Carson Sievert
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 12
Release: 2020-01-28
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780429824203

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The richly illustrated Interactive Web-Based Data Visualization with R, plotly, and shiny focuses on the process of programming interactive web graphics for multidimensional data analysis. It is written for the data analyst who wants to leverage the capabilities of interactive web graphics without having to learn web programming. Through many R code examples, you will learn how to tap the extensive functionality of these tools to enhance the presentation and exploration of data. By mastering these concepts and tools, you will impress your colleagues with your ability to quickly generate more informative, engaging, and reproducible interactive graphics using free and open source software that you can share over email, export to pdf, and more. Key Features: Convert static ggplot2 graphics to an interactive web-based form Link, animate, and arrange multiple plots in standalone HTML from R Embed, modify, and respond to plotly graphics in a shiny app Learn best practices for visualizing continuous, discrete, and multivariate data Learn numerous ways to visualize geo-spatial data This book makes heavy use of plotly for graphical rendering, but you will also learn about other R packages that support different phases of a data science workflow, such as tidyr, dplyr, and tidyverse. Along the way, you will gain insight into best practices for visualization of high-dimensional data, statistical graphics, and graphical perception. The printed book is complemented by an interactive website where readers can view movies demonstrating the examples and interact with graphics.

Lectures on General Pathology

Lectures on General Pathology
Author: Julius Cohnheim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 312
Release: 1889
Genre: Animal heat

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The Amazing World of IDPs in Human Diseases

The Amazing World of IDPs in Human Diseases
Author: Simona Maria Monti,Giuseppina De Simone,Emma Langella
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 196
Release: 2021-06-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783036510286

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It is now clearly established that some proteins or protein regions are devoid of any stable secondary and/or tertiary structure under physiological conditions, but still possess fundamental biological functions. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or regions (IDRs) have peculiar features due to their plasticity such as the capacity to bind their biological targets with high specificity and low affinity, and the possibility of interaction with numerous partners. A correlation between intrinsic disorder and various human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, amyloidoses and neurodegenerative diseases is now evident, highlighting the great importance of the topic. In this volume, we have collected recent high-quality research about IDPs and human diseases. We have selected nine papers which deal with a wide range of topics, from neurodegenerative disease to cancer, from IDR-mediated interactions to bioinformatics tools, all related to IDP peculiar features. Recent advances in the IDPs/IDRs issue are here presented, contributing to the progress of knowledge of the intrinsic disorder field in human disease.