Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids
Author: Ernesto Di Maio,Salvatore Iannace,Giuseppe Mensitieri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 486
Release: 2021-11-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780444637369

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Foaming with Supercritical Fluids, Volume Nine provides a comprehensive description of the use of supercritical fluids as blowing agents in polymer foaming. To this aim, the fundamental issues on which the proper design and control of this process are rooted are discussed in detail, with specific attention devoted to the theoretical and experimental aspects of sorption thermodynamics of a blowing agent within a polymer, the effect of the absorbed blowing agent on the thermal, interfacial and rheological properties of the expanding matter, and the phase separation of the gaseous phase, and of the related bubble nucleation and growth phenomena. Several foaming technologies based on the use of supercritical blowing agents are then described, addressing the main issues in the light of the underlying chemical-physical phenomena. Offers strong fundamentals on polymer properties important on foaming Outlines the use of supercritical fluids for foaming Covers theoretical points-of-view, including foam formation of the polymer/gas solution to the setting of the final foam Discusses the several processing technologies and applications

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids
Author: Vannessa Goodship,Erich Okoth Ogur
Publsiher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2005
Genre: Polymers
ISBN: 1859574947

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SCFs are currently the subjects of intense research and commercial interest. Applications such as the RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions) process are part of standard industrial practice. In view of their ever-growing importance in the polymer industry there is a need to fully comprehend how supercritical fluids interrelate with polymeric materials to realise the potential that can be gained from their use. The authors review the basic principles of SCFs and their application within the polymer industry: characteristics and properties, extraction of unwanted residual products, polymerisation solvents, and polymer impregnation. Processing applications such as plasticisation, foaming and blending are also considered. There is discussion of the potential within the polymer recycling industry for use of SCFs as cleaning agents or within supercritical oxidation processes. Around 400 references with abstracts from recent global literature accompany this review, sourced from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.

Product Process and Plant Design Using Subcritical and Supercritical Fluids for Industrial Application

Product  Process and Plant Design Using Subcritical and Supercritical Fluids for Industrial Application
Author: Željko Knez,Christoph Lütge
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2023-07-03
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783031346361

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This book describes cutting edge technology using supercritical fluids for the production of foodstuffs, medicals, and polymers. It illustrates the importance and use of basic data for design and operation at industrial scale units. The book's authors have several decades of experience of applied research on how to develop large scale industrial units. It provides readers complete insight in design and operation of industrial high pressure process plants. The book is written so it may be understood for people (with?) little or no background on high pressure process technology. It will provide information on how some foodstuffs, medicals, polymers are produced using high pressure technologies. The book demonstrates the importance of fundamental data, how to measure them and how to apply them to design industrial plants. At the same time, it also serves as a textbook for students.

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies
Author: Igor Pioro
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2020-05-20
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781838807085

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Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams
Author: Vikas Mittal
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2013-10-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781466558137

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Advancements in polymer nanocomposite foams have led to their application in a variety of fields, such as automotive, packaging, and insulation. Employing nanocomposites in foam formation enhances their property profiles, enabling a broader range of uses, from conventional to advanced applications. Since many factors affect the generation of nanost

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning
Author: Samuel P. Sawan,Samuel P Sawan
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 306
Release: 1998-12-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780815519164

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Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.

Foam Extrusion

Foam Extrusion
Author: S.-T. Lee,Chul B. Park
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 596
Release: 2014-04-07
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781439898604

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Combining the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice delivers a detailed discussion of the theory, design, processing, and application of degradable foam extraction. In one comprehensive volume, the editors present the collective expertise of leading academic, research, and industry spec

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
Author: Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 752
Release: 2013-12-08
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780080931302

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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions