Grassland Productivity and Ecosystem Services

Grassland Productivity and Ecosystem Services
Author: Gilles Lemaire,John Hodgson,Abad Chabbi
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 305
Release: 2011
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781845938093

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This book contains 28 chapters with emphasis on the interactive nature of the relationships between the soil, plant, animal and environmental components of grassland systems, both natural and managed. It analyses the present knowledge and the future trends of research for combining the classical view of grasslands, as a resource for secure feeding of an increasing human population, with the more recent perspective of the contribution of grasslands to the mitigation of environmental impacts and biodiversity erosion as consequences of human society activities. The chapters are organized within five sections dealing with the different functions and the main ecosystem services expected from grasslands: (i) domestic herbivore feeding and animal production; (ii) the regulation of biogeochemical cycles and its consequences for the environment; (iii) dynamics of biodiversity hosted by grasslands; (iv) integration of grasslands within sustainable animal production systems; and (v) interactions of grassland areas with other land use systems at the landscape level.

Grasslands and Climate Change

Grasslands and Climate Change
Author: David J. Gibson,Jonathan A. Newman
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 363
Release: 2019-03-21
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9781107195264

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A comprehensive assessment of the effects of climate change on global grasslands and the mitigating role that ecologists can play.

Grassland Productivity and Ecosystem Services

Grassland Productivity and Ecosystem Services
Author: Gilles Lemaire
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 287
Release: 2011
Genre: Electronic books
ISBN: 184593900X

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Grassland ecosystems are deeply affected by human activities and need appropriate management to optimise trade-offs between ecosystem functions and services. Until now they have mainly been analysed as agro-ecosystems for animal production but this book looks beyond the role of grassland as a feeding ground, and evaluates other important processes such as carbon sequestration in soils, greenhouse gas regulation and biodiversity protection. This authoritative volume expertly highlights the need for an immediate balance between agriculture and ecological management for sustainability in the futu.

Changes in Land Use and Land Cover

Changes in Land Use and Land Cover
Author: William B. Meyer,Billie Lee Turner,University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 570
Release: 1994-09-15
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 0521470854

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This book analyses the impact of human activities on the Earth's surface and environment.

Grasslands of the World

Grasslands of the World
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publsiher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Total Pages: 548
Release: 2005
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9251053375

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This book brings together information on the contrasting characteristics, condition, present use and problems of the world's main natural grasslands. Since grassland is commercialized through the grazing animal, particular attention is paid to the livestock production systems associated with each main type. Grazing resources are more than simply edible herbage: many other factors have to be taken into account, notably water in all areas, and shelter in winter-cold climates. Seasonality of forage supply is a characteristic of almost all grazing lands, so the strategies for dealing with lean seasons are described. The main problems of each type are mentioned and possible strategies for their sustainable management discussed - taking into account their multiple functions, not only livestock production. The book is primarily aimed at agricultural scientists, educationalists, extensionists and decision-makers with interests in responsible use of extensive grasslands.

Grasslands of the World

Grasslands of the World
Author: Victor R. Squires,Jürgen Dengler,Limin Hua,Haiying Feng
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2018-09-05
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9781351652209

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This book begins with a brief account of the extraordinary sequence of events that led to emergence of grasslands as major vegetation formations that now occupy some of the driest and hottest and the highest and coldest on earth as well as vast steppes and prairies in more temperate climes. It is the story of grasses successfully competing with forests and woodlands, aided and abetted by grazing herbivores and by humans and their use of fire as a tool. It is a story of adaptation to changing climates and the changing biophysical environments. A major focus of the book is the Palaearctic biogeographic realm that extends over some 45 million km2 and thus more than 1/3 of the terrestrial ice-free surface on Earth. It comprises extensive grasslands of different types and origin, which can be subdivided into (1) natural grasslands with (1a) steppes (climatogenic in dry climates), (1b) arctic-alpine grasslands (climatogenic in cold climates) and (1c) azonal and extrazonal grasslands (pedogenic and topogenic) as well as (2) secondary grasslands created and sustained by human activities, such as livestock grazing, mowing or burning. Grasslands of the Palaearctic do not only form a major basis for the agriculture of the region and thus its food supply, but are also crucial for other ecosystem services and host a supra proportional part of the realm’s plant and animal diversity. To reflect that suitability of grasslands for biodiversity strongly depends on their state, we apply the term High Nature Value grassland to those natural grasslands that are not degraded (in good state) and those secondary grasslands that are not intensified (semi-natural). The situation in a variety of countries where grasslands are evolving under the influence of global climate change is also considered. Case studies are presented on Southern Africa, Eastern Africa, India, China, South America, North America and Australia. The concluding chapter examines a set of themes arising from the chapters that make up the bulk of this book. The following provide a focus: recent history of grassland biomes – brief recap of current thinking and recent trends with special reference to dry grasslands in the Palearctic regions; the current status of grasslands and germplasm resources (biodiversity) – an overview; management systems that ensure sustainability; how to recover degraded grasslands; socio-economic issues and considerations in grassland management; the impacts of environmental problems in grasslands such as future climate change and intensification and the problems/prospects facing pastoralists and other grassland-based livestock producers.

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function
Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Harold A. Mooney
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 527
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783642580017

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The biota of the earth is being altered at an unprecedented rate. We are witnessing wholesale exchanges of organisms among geographic areas that were once totally biologically isolated. We are seeing massive changes in landscape use that are creating even more abundant succes sional patches, reductions in population sizes, and in the worst cases, losses of species. There are many reasons for concern about these trends. One is that we unfortunately do not know in detail the conse quences of these massive alterations in terms of how the biosphere as a whole operates or even, for that matter, the functioning of localized ecosystems. We do know that the biosphere interacts strongly with the atmospheric composition, contributing to potential climate change. We also know that changes in vegetative cover greatly influence the hydrology and biochemistry ofa site or region. Our knowledge is weak in important details, however. How are the many services that ecosystems provide to humanity altered by modifications of ecosystem composition? Stated in another way, what is the role of individual species in ecosystem function? We are observing the selective as well as wholesale alteration in the composition of ecosystems. Do these alterations matter in respect to how ecosystems operate and provide services? This book represents the initial probing of this central ques tion. It will be followed by other volumes in this series examining in depth the functional role of biodiversity in various ecosystems of the world.

Agroecosystem Diversity

Agroecosystem Diversity
Author: Gilles Lemaire,Paulo Cesar de Faccio Carvalho,Scott Kronberg,Sylvie Recous
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 478
Release: 2018-10-08
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128110515

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Agro-Ecosystem Diversity: Impact on Food Security and Environmental Quality presents cutting-edge exploration of developing novel farming systems and introduces landscape ecology to agronomy. It encompasses the broad range of links between agricultural development and ecological impact and how to limit the potential negative results. Presented in seven sections, each focusing on a specific challenge to sustaining diversity, the book provides insights toward the argument that by re-introducing diversity, it should be possible to maintain a high level of productivity of agro-ecosystems while also maintaining and/or restoring a satisfactory level of environment quality and biodiversity. Demonstrates that diversified agro-ecosystems can be intensified with environmental quality preserved, restored and enhanced Includes analysis of economic constraints leading to specialization of farms and regions and the social locking forces resisting to diversification of agro-ecosystems Presents a global vision of world agriculture and the tradeoff between a necessary increase in food production and restoring environment quality