### The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods Publsiher : Elsevier Total Pages : 691 Release : 2007-08-13 Genre : Mathematics ISBN : 9780080549392

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The present volume of the Handbook of the History of Logic brings together two of the most important developments in 20th century non-classical logic. These are many-valuedness and non-monotonicity. On the one approach, in deference to vagueness, temporal or quantum indeterminacy or reference-failure, sentences that are classically non-bivalent are allowed as inputs and outputs to consequence relations. Many-valued, dialetheic, fuzzy and quantum logics are, among other things, principled attempts to regulate the flow-through of sentences that are neither true nor false. On the second, or non-monotonic, approach, constraints are placed on inputs (and sometimes on outputs) of a classical consequence relation, with a view to producing a notion of consequence that serves in a more realistic way the requirements of real-life inference. Many-valued logics produce an interesting problem. Non-bivalent inputs produce classically valid consequence statements, for any choice of outputs. A major task of many-valued logics of all stripes is to fashion an appropriately non-classical relation of consequence.The chief preoccupation of non-monotonic (and default) logicians is how to constrain inputs and outputs of the consequence relation. In what is called “left non-monotonicity , it is forbidden to add new sentences to the inputs of true consequence-statements. The restriction takes notice of the fact that new information will sometimes override an antecedently (and reasonably) derived consequence. In what is called “right non-monotonicity , limitations are imposed on outputs of the consequence relation. Most notably, perhaps, is the requirement that the rule of or-introduction not be given free sway on outputs. Also prominent is the effort of paraconsistent logicians, both preservationist and dialetheic, to limit the outputs of inconsistent inputs, which in classical contexts are wholly unconstrained.In some instances, our two themes coincide. Dialetheic logics are a case in point. Dialetheic logics allow certain selected sentences to have, as a third truth value, the classical values of truth and falsity together. So such logics also admit classically inconsistent inputs. A central task is to construct a right non-monotonic consequence relation that allows for these many-valued, and inconsistent, inputs.The Many Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science, AI, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, and the history of ideas. Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interprative insights that answers many questions in the field of logic.

### Handbook of the History of Logic Inductive logic

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Hayden Woods Publsiher : Elsevier Total Pages : 802 Release : 2004 Genre : Induction (Logic) ISBN : 9780444529367

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In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of the chapter on Aristotle's early logic that, from its infancy, the theory of the syllogism is an example of an intuitionistic, non-monotonic, relevantly paraconsistent logic. Similarly, in addition to its comparative earliness, what is striking about the best of the Megarian and Stoic traditions is their sophistication and originality.

### The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

 Author : Stewart Shapiro Publsiher : Oxford University Press Total Pages : 856 Release : 2005-02-10 Genre : Mathematics ISBN : 9780190287535

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Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on these topics in the best mainstream philosophical journals; in fact, the last decade has seen an explosion of scholarly work in these areas. This volume covers these disciplines in a comprehensive and accessible manner, giving the reader an overview of the major problems, positions, and battle lines. The 26 contributed chapters are by established experts in the field, and their articles contain both exposition and criticism as well as substantial development of their own positions. The essays, which are substantially self-contained, serve both to introduce the reader to the subject and to engage in it at its frontiers. Certain major positions are represented by two chapters--one supportive and one critical. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Math and Logic is a ground-breaking reference like no other in its field. It is a central resource to those wishing to learn about the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of logic, or some aspect thereof, and to those who actively engage in the discipline, from advanced undergraduates to professional philosophers, mathematicians, and historians.

### Logic from Russell to Church

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods Publsiher : Elsevier Total Pages : 1068 Release : 2009-06-16 Genre : Mathematics ISBN : 9780080885476

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This volume is number five in the 11-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. It covers the first 50 years of the development of mathematical logic in the 20th century, and concentrates on the achievements of the great names of the period--Russell, Post, Gödel, Tarski, Church, and the like. This was the period in which mathematical logic gave mature expression to its four main parts: set theory, model theory, proof theory and recursion theory. Collectively, this work ranks as one of the greatest achievements of our intellectual history. Written by leading researchers in the field, both this volume and the Handbook as a whole are definitive reference tools for senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in the history of logic, the history of philosophy, and any discipline, such as mathematics, computer science, and artificial intelligence, for whom the historical background of his or her work is a salient consideration. • The entire range of modal logic is covered • Serves as a singular contribution to the intellectual history of the 20th century • Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interpretative insights

### Handbook of Logic and Language

 Author : Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen Publsiher : Elsevier Total Pages : 1169 Release : 2010-12-17 Genre : Mathematics ISBN : 9780444537270

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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories

### Handbook of the History of Logic

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Hayden Woods Publsiher : Unknown Total Pages : 618 Release : 2004 Genre : Electronic Book ISBN : 0444515968

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### British Logic in the Nineteenth Century

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods Publsiher : Elsevier Total Pages : 750 Release : 2008-03-10 Genre : Mathematics ISBN : 0080557015

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The present volume of the Handbook of the History of Logic is designed to establish 19th century Britain as a substantial force in logic, developing new ideas, some of which would be overtaken by, and other that would anticipate, the century's later capitulation to the mathematization of logic. British Logic in the Nineteenth Century is indispensable reading and a definitive research resource for anyone with an interest in the history of logic. - Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic - Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interpretative insights that answer many questions in the field of logic

### Inductive Logic

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods Publsiher : Elsevier Total Pages : 801 Release : 2011-05-27 Genre : Mathematics ISBN : 9780080931692