Mixture Toxicity

Mixture Toxicity
Author: Cornelis A. M. van Gestel,Martijs Jonker,Jan E. Kammenga,Ryszard Laskowski,Claus Svendsen
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2016-04-19
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 1439830096

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In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures
Author: Harold Zeliger
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 574
Release: 2011-06-24
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 1437734642

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In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the environment. Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology. Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma, infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental scientists and lawyers. Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations - far too many to comprehensively catalog) A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures

Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures
Author: Raymond S.H. Yang
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 720
Release: 2016-05-14
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781483289403

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Although toxicologic studies in the laboratory often focus on a single chemical, in the larger world, mixtures of chemicals are routinely encountered. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures examines the mechanisms of interactions and health effects stemming from chemical mixtures in the environment. Toxicologists, pharmacologists, environmental scientists, and professionals involved in environmental clean-ups will benefit from its content. Emphasis is on low-level, long-term exposure. Key Features * Some of the issues addressed include: * Target organ toxicities in response to chemical mixture exposures * Risk assessment and experimental approaches * Case studies and special pollution problems * Special pollution problems

Chemical Mixtures and Combined Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors

Chemical Mixtures and Combined Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors
Author: Cynthia V. Rider,Jane Ellen Simmons
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 556
Release: 2018-02-16
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783319562346

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In this book, both basic and advanced concepts are discussed for considering mixtures from initial exposure characterization through evaluation of risk associated with combined exposures. This book will provide an introduction to key issues and multiple options for evaluating both the toxicity of mixtures as well as the risk associated with exposure to mixtures. Additionally, promising tools adapted from other disciplines will be discussed in the context of mixtures toxicology and risk assessment. Finally, the discussion will move beyond chemical mixtures to address incorporating non-chemical stressors into toxicity studies and cumulative risk assessments. Although exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors is the rule, not the exception, consideration of mixtures in toxicology and risk assessment continues to be a significant challenge. This book will be an essential resource for researchers and professionals in the fields of toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment, and statistics.

The Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures

The Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures
Author: J. K. Pollak
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 77
Release: 1993
Genre: Toxicology
ISBN: 086758775X

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Principles and Practice of Mixtures Toxicology

Principles and Practice of Mixtures Toxicology
Author: Moiz Mumtaz
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 662
Release: 2011-05-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783527632114

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This first comprehensive treatment of the subject for more than a decade includes the latest research on nanoparticle toxicology. The practical handbook addresses all areas where toxic mixtures are encountered, from environmental via occupational to medical settings, giving special consideration to air and water, and to the specific requirements for study design in mixture toxicology. While no extensive prior knowledge or toxicological experience is required, the practice-oriented case studies and examples in the second part make this the ideal companion for the professional toxicologist in industry or healthcare institutions with little time for academic study.

The Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment for Human and Ecological Receptors

The Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment for Human and Ecological Receptors
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 101
Release: 2005
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:227909204

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Mixtures of chemicals represent a concern in all areas of toxicology and a challenge to risk assessors as most sites with environmental contamination, including Department of Defense sites, involve simultaneous or sequential exposures of multiple chemicals to human or ecological receptors. A major concern with mixtures is that they may lead to outcomes (health effects) or increased toxicity (synergism) not expected from the risk characterization of individual chemicals at the site. The focus of this literature review is 0 examine the principles used to determine toxicity in chemical mixtures risk assessment for human and ecological receptors at hazardous waste sites. This review provides an overview of current practices useful to a remedial project manager or risk assessor prior to their first chemical mixtures risk assessment.

Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures

Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures
Author: Michael D. Waters,F.Bernhard Daniel,Joellen Lewtas,Martha M. Moore,Stephen Nesnow
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2013-03-13
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781468458503

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Contained in this volume are the proceedings of the international conference on the "Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures," held from July 4-7, 1989, in Washington, DC. This meeting was a satellite of the "Fifth International Conference on Environmental Mutagens" and the seventh in a biennial series of conferences on "Short-term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures. " Our central objective in calling together key researchers from around the world was to extend our knowledge of the application of the methods of genetic toxicology and analytical chemistry in the evaluation of chemical mixtures as they exist in the environment. This conference emphasized the study of genotoxicants in air and water, and the assessment of human exposure and cancer risk. The latest strategies and methodologies for biomonitoring of genotoxicants (including transformation products) were described in the context of the ambient environment. Source character ization and source apportionment were discussed as an aid to understand ing the origin and relative contribution of various kinds of complex mix tures to the ambient environment. Similarly, investigations of genotoxi cants found in the indoor environment (sidestream cigarette smoke) and in drinking water (chlorohydroxyfuranones) were given special attention in terms of their potential health impacts. New molecular techniques were described to enable more precise quantitation of internal dose and dose to-target tissues. The emphasis of presentations on exposures/effects assessment was on integrated quantitative evaluation of human exposure and potential health effects.