Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids
Author: Michael Türk
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2014-11-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780444594433

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Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development
Author: Peter York,Uday B. Kompella,Boris Y. Shekunov
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2004-03-23
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780824751029

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Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical products-from drug powders for respiratory delivery to drug delivery systems for controlled release.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
Author: E. Kiran,Johanna M.H. Levelt Sengers
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 796
Release: 2013-11-11
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789401582957

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Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.

Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology

Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology
Author: Mazen H. Hanna
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 238
Release: 1995
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1179805985

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A novel apparatus and methods of controlled particle formation from supercritical fluids are proposed. A solution of the material of interest is fed together with a fluid (e.g. CO2) above its critical point through a concentric nozzle into a high pressure vessel. The temperature and pressure of the vessel are controlled by a thermocouple and an automated back pressure regulator respectively. The supercritical fluid disperses, mixes and rapidly extracts the solvent leading to formation of particulate products. The products are retained in the high pressure vessel by a particle retention device. The supercritical solution (i.e. the supercritical fluid and the solvent) emerging from the back pressure regulator is allowed to expand so that the solvent may separate from the gas, and both are recycled. By changing the working conditions of pressure, temperature and flow rate of the solution to the supercritical fluid, it is possible to control the size, shape and morphology of the products - increase of the pressure and/or flow rate of the supercritical fluid led to a decrease in particle size. Products prepared by this new technique include, drug materials, inorganics, polymers, carbohydrates and proteins. Microparticulate products of the drug salmeterol xinafoate exhibit narrow size distribution, batch-to-batch consistency, high degree of crystallinity, enhanced chemical and polymorphic purity, low dynamic bulk density, undetectable amounts of residual solvent content and are free flowing with low dispersion energy due to lack of static charge. This new method of preparation of particles from supercritical fluids has potential applicatlon to industrial particle formation processing avoiding problems of conventional crystallisation procedures.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications
Author: Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2013-12-21
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780444626974

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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Particle Formation from the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Fluid Solutions

Particle Formation from the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Fluid Solutions
Author: Gina Rae Shaub
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 364
Release: 1994
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:31828365

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Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids
Author: Can Erkey,Michael Turk
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2021-11-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780444640901

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Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and/or Supercritical Fluids: Methods, Fundamentals and Modeling offers a comprehensive review of the current status of research, development and insights on promising future directions, covering the synthesis of nanostructured materials using supercritical fluid-based processes. The book presents fundamental aspects such as high-pressure phase behavior of complex mixtures, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption from supercritical solutions, mechanisms of particle formation phenomena in supercritical fluid-based processes, and models for further development. It bridges the gap between theory and application, and is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students alike. Includes thermodynamic and mass transfer data necessary for industrial plant design Explains the mechanisms of reactions in a supercritical fluid environment Lists numerous industrial processes for the production of many consumer products

Visualization of Particle Formation Processes in Supercritical Fluids

Visualization of Particle Formation Processes in Supercritical Fluids
Author: Amendi Pennington Stephens
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2003
Genre: Crystallization
ISBN: OCLC:53179608

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