Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems
Author: Xiaocong Fan
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 686
Release: 2015-02-25
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9780128017180

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This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you learn the key concept of embedded systems; Part one introduces the development process, and includes two chapters on microprocessors and interrupts---fundamental topics for software engineers; Part two is dedicated to modeling techniques for real-time systems; Part three looks at the design of software architectures and Part four covers software implementations, with a focus on POSIX-compliant operating systems. With this book you will learn: The pros and cons of different architectures for embedded systems POSIX real-time extensions, and how to develop POSIX-compliant real time applications How to use real-time UML to document system designs with timing constraints The challenges and concepts related to cross-development Multitasking design and inter-task communication techniques (shared memory objects, message queues, pipes, signals) How to use kernel objects (e.g. Semaphores, Mutex, Condition variables) to address resource sharing issues in RTOS applications The philosophy underpinning the notion of "resource manager" and how to implement a virtual file system using a resource manager The key principles of real-time scheduling and several key algorithms Coverage of the latest UML standard (UML 2.4) Over 20 design patterns which represent the best practices for reuse in a wide range of real-time embedded systems Example codes which have been tested in QNX---a real-time operating system widely adopted in industry

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems
Author: Christos Koulamas,Mihai T. Lazarescu
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 189
Release: 2019-01-10
Genre: Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
ISBN: 9783038975090

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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Real-Time Embedded Systems" that was published in Electronics

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems
Author: Jiacun Wang
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2017-07-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781119420682

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Offering comprehensive coverage of the convergence of real-time embedded systems scheduling, resource access control, software design and development, and high-level system modeling, analysis and verification Following an introductory overview, Dr. Wang delves into the specifics of hardware components, including processors, memory, I/O devices and architectures, communication structures, peripherals, and characteristics of real-time operating systems. Later chapters are dedicated to real-time task scheduling algorithms and resource access control policies, as well as priority-inversion control and deadlock avoidance. Concurrent system programming and POSIX programming for real-time systems are covered, as are finite state machines and Time Petri nets. Of special interest to software engineers will be the chapter devoted to model checking, in which the author discusses temporal logic and the NuSMV model checking tool, as well as a chapter treating real-time software design with UML. The final portion of the book explores practical issues of software reliability, aging, rejuvenation, security, safety, and power management. In addition, the book: Explains real-time embedded software modeling and design with finite state machines, Petri nets, and UML, and real-time constraints verification with the model checking tool, NuSMV Features real-world examples in finite state machines, model checking, real-time system design with UML, and more Covers embedded computer programing, designing for reliability, and designing for safety Explains how to make engineering trade-offs of power use and performance Investigates practical issues concerning software reliability, aging, rejuvenation, security, and power management Real-Time Embedded Systems is a valuable resource for those responsible for real-time and embedded software design, development, and management. It is also an excellent textbook for graduate courses in computer engineering, computer science, information technology, and software engineering on embedded and real-time software systems, and for undergraduate computer and software engineering courses.

Real Time Concepts for Embedded Systems

Real Time Concepts for Embedded Systems
Author: Qing Li,Caroline Yao
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 366
Release: 2003-01-04
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781482280821

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'... a very good balance between the theory and practice of real-time embedded system designs.' —Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino, Ph.D., Research Laboratory, Internet Initiative Japan Inc., IETF IPv6 Operations Working Group (v6ops) co-chair 'A cl

Real Time Systems

Real Time Systems
Author: Hermann Kopetz
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2006-04-18
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9780306470554

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7. 6 Performance Comparison: ET versus TT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7. 7 The Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Points to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Chapter 8: The Time-Triggered Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 8. 1 Introduction to Time-Triggered Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 8. 2 Overview of the TTP/C Protocol Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 8. 3 TheBasic CNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Internal Operation of TTP/C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 8. 4 8. 5 TTP/A for Field Bus Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Chapter 9: Input/Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 9. 1 The Dual Role of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 9. 2 Agreement Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 9. 3 Sampling and Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 9. 4 Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 9. 5 Sensors and Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 9. 6 Physical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Chapter 10: Real-Time Operating Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 10. 1 Task Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 10. 2 Interprocess Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 10. 3 Time Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 10. 4 Error Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 10. 5 A Case Study: ERCOS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Chapter 11: Real-Time Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 11. 1 The Scheduling Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 11. 2 The Adversary Argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 11. 3 Dynamic Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 x TABLE OF CONTENTS 11. 4 Static Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Chapter 12: Validation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 12. 1 Building aConvincing Safety Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 12. 2 Formal Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 12. 3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems
Author: Ivan Cibrario Bertolotti,Gabriele Manduchi
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 534
Release: 2017-12-19
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781439841617

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From the Foreword: "...the presentation of real-time scheduling is probably the best in terms of clarity I have ever read in the professional literature. Easy to understand, which is important for busy professionals keen to acquire (or refresh) new knowledge without being bogged down in a convoluted narrative and an excessive detail overload. The authors managed to largely avoid theoretical-only presentation of the subject, which frequently affects books on operating systems. ... an indispensable [resource] to gain a thorough understanding of the real-time systems from the operating systems perspective, and to stay up to date with the recent trends and actual developments of the open-source real-time operating systems." —Richard Zurawski, ISA Group, San Francisco, California, USA Real-time embedded systems are integral to the global technological and social space, but references still rarely offer professionals the sufficient mix of theory and practical examples required to meet intensive economic, safety, and other demands on system development. Similarly, instructors have lacked a resource to help students fully understand the field. The information was out there, though often at the abstract level, fragmented and scattered throughout literature from different engineering disciplines and computing sciences. Accounting for readers’ varying practical needs and experience levels, Real Time Embedded Systems: Open-Source Operating Systems Perspective offers a holistic overview from the operating-systems perspective. It provides a long-awaited reference on real-time operating systems and their almost boundless application potential in the embedded system domain. Balancing the already abundant coverage of operating systems with the largely ignored real-time aspects, or "physicality," the authors analyze several realistic case studies to introduce vital theoretical material. They also discuss popular open-source operating systems—Linux and FreRTOS, in particular—to help embedded-system designers identify the benefits and weaknesses in deciding whether or not to adopt more traditional, less powerful, techniques for a project.

Real Time Embedded Components and Systems with Linux and RTOS

Real Time Embedded Components and Systems with Linux and RTOS
Author: Sam Siewert,John Pratt
Publsiher: Mercury Learning and Information
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2015-12-29
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781944534547

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This book is intended to provide a senior undergraduate or graduate student in electrical engineering or computer science with a balance of fundamental theory, review of industry practice, and hands-on experience to prepare for a career in the real-time embedded system industries. It is also intended to provide the practicing engineer with the necessary background to apply real-time theory to the design of embedded components and systems. Typical industries include aerospace, medical diagnostic and therapeutic systems, telecommunications, automotive, robotics, industrial process control, media systems, computer gaming, and electronic entertainment, as well as multimedia applications for general-purpose computing. This updated edition adds three new chapters focused on key technology advancements in embedded systems and with wider coverage of real-time architectures. The overall focus remains the RTOS (Real-Time Operating System), but use of Linux for soft real-time, hybrid FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) architectures and advancements in multi-core system-on-chip (SoC), as well as software strategies for asymmetric and symmetric multiprocessing (AMP and SMP) relevant to real-time embedded systems, have been added. Companion files are provided with numerous project videos, resources, applications, and figures from the book. Instructors’ resources are available upon adoption. FEATURES: • Provides a comprehensive, up to date, and accessible presentation of embedded systems without sacrificing theoretical foundations • Features the RTOS (Real-Time Operating System), but use of Linux for soft real-time, hybrid FPGA architectures and advancements in multi-core system-on-chip is included • Discusses an overview of RTOS advancements, including AMP and SMP configurations, with a discussion of future directions for RTOS use in multi-core architectures, such as SoC • Detailed applications coverage including robotics, computer vision, and continuous media • Includes a companion disc (4GB) with numerous videos, resources, projects, examples, and figures from the book • Provides several instructors’ resources, including lecture notes, Microsoft PP slides, etc.

Performance Analysis of Real Time Embedded Software

Performance Analysis of Real Time Embedded Software
Author: Yau-Tsun Steven Li,Sharad Malik
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781461551317

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Embedded systems are characterized by the presence of processors running application-specific software. Recent years have seen a large growth of such systems, and this trend is projected to continue with the growth of systems on a chip. Many of these systems have strict performance and cost requirements. To design these systems, sophisticated timing analysis tools are needed to accurately determine the extreme case (best case and worst case) performance of the software components. Existing techniques for this analysis have one or more of the following limitations: they cannot model complicated programs they cannot model advanced micro-architectural features of the processor, such as cache memories and pipelines they cannot be easily retargeted for new hardware platforms. In Performance Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Software, a new timing analysis technique is presented to overcome the above limitations. The technique determines the bounds on the extreme case (best case and worst case) execution time of a program when running on a given hardware system. It partitions the problem into two sub-problems: program path analysis and microarchitecture modeling. Performance Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Software will be of interest to Design Automation professionals as well as designers of circuits and systems.