Social Predation

Social Predation
Author: Guy Beauchamp
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 335
Release: 2013-12-07
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780124076549

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The classic literature on predation dealt almost exclusively with solitary predators and their prey. Going back to Lotka-Volterra and optimal foraging theory, the theory about predation, including predator-prey population dynamics, was developed for solitary species. Various consequences of sociality for predators have been considered only recently. Similarly, while it was long recognized that prey species can benefit from living in groups, research on the adaptive value of sociality for prey species mostly emerged in the 1970s. The main theme of this book is the various ways that predators and prey may benefit from living in groups. The first part focusses on predators and explores how group membership influences predation success rate, from searching to subduing prey. The second part focusses on how prey in groups can detect and escape predators. The final section explores group size and composition and how individuals respond over evolutionary times to the challenges posed by chasing or being chased by animals in groups. This book will help the reader understand current issues in social predation theory and provide a synthesis of the literature across a broad range of animal taxa. Includes the whole taxonomical range rather than limiting it to a select few Features in-depth analysis that allows a better understanding of many subtleties surrounding the issues related to social predation Presents both models and empirical results while covering the extensive predator and prey literature Contains extensive illustrations and separate boxes that cover more technical features, i.e., to present models and review results

The Spotted Hyena

The Spotted Hyena
Author: Hans Kruuk
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 388
Release: 2014-09-30
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 1626549052

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In this seminal study, Hans Kruuk redefines the image of the spotted hyena, not as a common scavenger, but as a complex matriarchal predator with links to human evolution. The Spotted Hyena is the first study to capture the true behavior and ecology of these formidable predators, who instinctively adapt their social structure to meet their ecological needs. Kruuk's research reveals for the first time that hyenas combine carnivorous habits with group territoriality, thus drawing parallels between their existence and that of wolves, lions, and arguably early humans. In addition to being lovable rogues, spotted hyenas are sophisticated hunters that live in complex communities of up to 80 animals. Covering more than broad facts about this species, Kruuk addresses the vital questions concerning hyena behavior such as why females are dominant, why lions scavenge from hyenas, why hyenas hunt zebra and wildebeest differently, and how their social behavior correlates with ecology. Since its original publication, The Spotted Hyena has transformed the common perception of the spotted hyena. With nearly 2,000 citations in scientific literature, The Spotted Hyena has become a classic work and trailblazer for linking changes in animal behavior with the environment, in addition to its concentration on a large carnivore that shares several characteristics with select primates. Although this is a science book, Kruuk skips the jargon and complicated theory, thus making its conclusions easily accessible to any student of natural history, African predators, or social behavior within animal communities. The Spotted Hyena features exciting field notes in addition to comprehensive graphs and tables that have made it an invaluable contribution to behavioral ecology and its methodology. Hans Kruuk studied hyenas while living in the wilderness of Africa's Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater for many years. After completing his doctorate with Nobel Prize winner Niko Tinbergen at the University of Oxford, Kruuk was asked by the former Tanganyika (now Tanzania) National Parks to study predation in the Serengeti. Kruuk focused on the most important carnivore there—the spotted hyena—and co-founded the Serengeti Research Institute in Tanzania to carry out his research. Many years later in 1997, he retired emeritus from his position as Senior Principal Research Officer at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in Banchory, Scotland. Kruuk has carried out research projects on mammals and birds on all continents, published seven books and over 120 scientific papers. Among his awards are scientific medals from the Zoological Society of London and British Mammal Society, and secondary Doctorate of Science from the University of Aberdeen where he is also Honorary Professor.

Perturbation Behavioural Feedbacks and Population Dynamics in Social Animals

Perturbation  Behavioural Feedbacks  and Population Dynamics in Social Animals
Author: Daniel Oro
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 165
Release: 2020-03-26
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9780198849834

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This novel, transdisciplinary work explains how perturbations (defined as strong disturbances or deviations to a system) can affect the population dynamics of social animals, including ourselves. Social responses to perturbations, especially dispersal processes, can also generate non-linear population dynamics, including the potential appearance of tipping points and critical population transitions, which can in turn lead to catastrophic shifts and collapses. The book describes the links between social behaviour (mainly the use of social information and social copying), and non-linear population dynamics at different spatial scales (local dynamics and meta-population dynamics), and their ecological and evolutionary consequences. Examples from the natural world illustrate each of the main themes (prospecting, habitat suitability, collective dispersal, and cultural evolution). Human warfare and conflict, referred to in several chapters together with quantitative and qualitative examples, is also viewed as a form of perturbation and represents a paradigmatic example of the rationale behind this book. This applicability to our own species is particularly timely, given increased interest in both ecosystem change, human migration, and the global refugee crisis. Perturbation, Behavioural Feedbacks, and Population Dynamics in Social Animals will appeal to applied, theoretical, and evolutionary ecologists, particularly those working on the population and behavioural ecology of any social animal including humans. Its overlap with the study of complexity will also ensure its relevance and use to scientists from other disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, physics, computational science, economics, and mathematics.

Army Ants

Army Ants
Author: William H. Gotwald
Publsiher: Comstock Publishing Associates
Total Pages: 302
Release: 1995
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0801426332

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Cooperative predators, army ants in unison can attack stoutly defended social insect colonies and can hunt down and devour insects much larger than themselves. Yet from folktales to fieldnotes, the image of army ants has too often magnified their aggression and ignored their magnificent capacity for social cooperation. A veteran of thirty years of research on army ants in Africa, Malaysia, Australia, Mexico, and Trinidad, William H. Gotwald, Jr., offers the first comprehensive account of their behavioral ecology and evolution.

The Ethology of Predation

The Ethology of Predation
Author: E. Curio
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783642810282

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Predation is an ecological factor of almost universal importance for the biol ogist who aims at an understanding of the habits and structures of animals. Despite its pervasive nature opinions differ as to what predation really is. So far it has been defined only in negative terms; it is thought not to be par asitism, the other great process by which one organism harms another, nor filter-feeding, carrion-eating, or browsing. Accordingly, one could define predation as a process by which an animal spends some effort to locate a live prey and, in addition, spends another effort to mutilate or kill it. Ac cording to this usage of the word a nudibranch, for example, that feeds on hydroids would be a predator inasmuch as it needs some time to locate col onies of its prey which, after being located, scarcely demand more than eating, which differs little from browsing. From the definition just proposed consumption of the prey following its capture has been intentionally omit ted. Indeed, an animal may be disposed of without being eaten. Hence the biological significance of predation may be more than to maintain nutrition al homeostasis. In fact, predation may have something in common with the more direct forms of competition, a facet that will be only cursorily touched upon in this book.

Predation

Predation
Author: R. J. Taylor
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 174
Release: 2013-06-29
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789400955547

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When assuming the task of preparing a book such as this, one inevitably wonders why anyone would want to read it. I have always sympathized with Charles Elton's trenchant observation in his 1927 book that 'we have to face the fact that while ecological work is fascinating to do, it is unbearably dull to read about . . . ' And yet several good reasons do exist for producing a small volume on predation. The subject is interesting in its own right; no ecologist can deny that predation is one of the basic processes in the natural world. And the logical roots for much currently published reasoning about predation are remarkably well hidden; if one must do research on the subject, it helps not to be forced to start from first principles. A student facing predator-prey interactions for the first time is confronted with an amazingly diverse and sometimes inaccessible literature, with a ratio of wheat to chaff not exceeding 1: 5. A guide to the perplexed in this field does not exist at present, and I hope the book will serve that function. But apart from these more-or-Iess academic reasons for writing the book, I am forced to it by my conviction that predators are important in the ecological scheme. They playa critical role in the biological control of insects and other pests and are therefore of immediate economic concern.

Caspian Tern Management to Reduce Predation of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary

Caspian Tern Management to Reduce Predation of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary
Author: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2005
Genre: Caspian tern
ISBN: NWU:35556035057744

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Food Exploitation By Social Insects

Food Exploitation By Social Insects
Author: Stefan Jarau,Michael Hrncir
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2009-05-21
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9781420075618

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Omnipresent in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and of undisputed ecological and economical importance, the study of social insects is an area that continues to attract a vast number of researchers. As a consequence, a huge amount of information about their biology and ecology has accumulated. Distilling this scattered information into a highly