The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System

The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System
Author: Bertha Madras,Michael Kuhar
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 624
Release: 2013-11-15
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9780124186859

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Drug use and abuse continues to thrive in contemporary society worldwide and the instance and damage caused by addiction increases along with availability. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System presents objective, state-of-the-art information on the impact of drug abuse on the human nervous system, with each chapter offering a specific focus on nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA, sedative-hypnotics, and designer drugs. Other chapters provide a context for drug use, with overviews of use and consequences, epidemiology and risk factors, genetics of use and treatment success, and strategies to screen populations and provide appropriate interventions. The book offers meaningful, relevant and timely information for scientists, health-care professionals and treatment providers. A comprehensive reference on the effects of drug addiction on the human nervous system Focuses on core drug addiction issues from nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, alcohol, and other commonly abused drugs Includes foundational science chapters on the biology of addiction Details challenges in diagnosis and treatment options

Drugs Addiction and the Brain

Drugs  Addiction  and the Brain
Author: George F. Koob,Michael A. Arends,Michel Le Moal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 351
Release: 2014-07-12
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780123869593

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Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain explores the molecular, cellular, and neurocircuitry systems in the brain that are responsible for drug addiction. Common neurobiological elements are emphasized that provide novel insights into how the brain mediates the acute rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and how it changes during the transition from initial drug use to compulsive drug use and addiction. The book provides a detailed overview of the pathophysiology of the disease. The information provided will be useful for neuroscientists in the field of addiction, drug abuse treatment providers, and undergraduate and postgraduate students who are interested in learning the diverse effects of drugs of abuse on the brain. Full-color circuitry diagrams of brain regions implicated in each stage of the addiction cycle Actual data figures from original sources illustrating key concepts and findings Introduction to basic neuropharmacology terms and concepts Introduction to numerous animal models used to study diverse aspects of drug use. Thorough review of extant work on the neurobiology of addiction

Drugs Brains and Behavior

Drugs  Brains  and Behavior
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 76
Release: 2007
Genre: Brain
ISBN: MINN:31951D025861296

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Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements

Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements
Author: Leslie A. Pray,Institute of Medicine,Ann L. Yaktine,Food and Nutrition Board,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Diana E. Pankevich,Planning Committee for a Workshop on Potential Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 0
Release: 2014
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: 0309297494

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Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine in August 2013 to review the available science on safe levels of caffeine consumption in foods, beverages, and dietary supplements and to identify data gaps. Scientists with expertise in food safety, nutrition, pharmacology, psychology, toxicology, and related disciplines; medical professionals with pediatric and adult patient experience in cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry; public health professionals; food industry representatives; regulatory experts; and consumer advocates discussed the safety of caffeine in food and dietary supplements, including, but not limited to, caffeinated beverage products, and identified data gaps. Caffeine, a central nervous stimulant, is arguably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. Occurring naturally in more than 60 plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves, cola nuts and cocoa pods, caffeine has been part of innumerable cultures for centuries. But the caffeine-in-food landscape is changing. There are an array of new caffeine-containing energy products, from waffles to sunflower seeds, jelly beans to syrup, even bottled water, entering the marketplace. Years of scientific research have shown that moderate consumption by healthy adults of products containing naturally-occurring caffeine is not associated with adverse health effects. The changing caffeine landscape raises concerns about safety and whether any of these new products might be targeting populations not normally associated with caffeine consumption, namely children and adolescents, and whether caffeine poses a greater health risk to those populations than it does for healthy adults. This report delineates vulnerable populations who may be at risk from caffeine exposure; describes caffeine exposure and risk of cardiovascular and other health effects on vulnerable populations, including additive effects with other ingredients and effects related to pre-existing conditions; explores safe caffeine exposure levels for general and vulnerable populations; and identifies data gaps on caffeine stimulant effects.

Neurological Aspects of Substance Abuse

Neurological Aspects of Substance Abuse
Author: John Calvin M. Brust
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2004
Genre: Anatomy
ISBN: 0750673133

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The 2nd Edition of this comprehensive text features practical guidance on how to diagnose and manage the neurological effects and complications of every major category of recreationally used drugs. Book jacket.

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System
Author: Robert Vink,Mihai Nechifor
Publsiher: University of Adelaide Press
Total Pages: 354
Release: 2011
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780987073051

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The brain is the most complex organ in our body. Indeed, it is perhaps the most complex structure we have ever encountered in nature. Both structurally and functionally, there are many peculiarities that differentiate the brain from all other organs. The brain is our connection to the world around us and by governing nervous system and higher function, any disturbance induces severe neurological and psychiatric disorders that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium, in particular, remains elusive, largely because intracellular levels are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism. There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration. This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesiums involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behavior. It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesiums role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Neuropathology of Drug Abuse

Neuropathology of Drug Abuse
Author: Andreas Büttner
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 116
Release: 2020-10-27
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030605315

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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge concerning neuropathologies resulting from drug abuse. The first chapters offer readers detailed information on the neurobiological basics of drug abuse and the results of neuroimaging studies in drug abusers. The focus of the book is on neuropathological findings in drug abusers for the predominant substances, which include cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and a broad spectrum of designer drugs. These findings are supported by histological illustrations and discussed in connection with recent scientific publications. A chapter specifically addressing clinicians is also included, and highlights the implications for further therapy. The book is essential reading for neuropathologists, neurologists, neuroradiologists and psychiatrists, as well as other health professionals and scientists interested and engaged in the problem of drug abuse. Although a great deal of data has been derived from animal models and from human neuroimaging studies, little is known about the morphological effects of drug abuse on the human brain. In recent years, fundamental drug-induced effects on the cellular elements of the brain have been detected. These alterations might not only be the substrate of the neuroimaging data but might also have implications for clinical research and therapy. In addition, drug abuse may induce premature neurodegeneration.

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction
Author: Mary Torregrossa
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2018-08-24
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128123317

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Neural Mechanisms of Addiction is the only book available that synthesizes the latest research in the field into a single, accessible resource covering all aspects of how addiction develops and persists in the brain. The book summarizes our most recent understanding on the neural mechanisms underlying addiction. It also examines numerous biobehavioral aspects of addiction disorders, such as reinforcement learning, reward, cognitive dysfunction, stress, and sleep and circadian rhythms that are not covered in any other publication. Readers with find the most up-to-date information on which to build a foundation for their future research in this expanding field. Combining chapters from leading researchers and thought leaders, this book is an indispensable guide for students and investigators engaged in addiction research. Transcends multiple neural, neurochemical and behavioral domains Summarizes advances in the field of addiction research since the advent of optogenetics Discusses the most current, leading theories of addiction, including molecular mechanisms and dopamine mechanisms