The Politics of Street Trees

The Politics of Street Trees
Author: Jan Woudstra,Camilla Allen
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2022-03-18
Genre: Architecture
ISBN: 9781000556490

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This book focuses on the politics of street trees and the institutions, actors and processes that govern their planning, planting and maintenance. This is an innovative approach which is particularly important in the context of mounting environmental and societal challenges and reveals a huge amount about the nature of modern life, social change and political conflict. The work first provides different historical perspectives on street trees and politics, celebrating diversity in different cultures. A second section discusses street tree values, policy and management, addressing more contemporary issues of their significance and contribution to our environment, both physically and philosophically. It explores cultural idiosyncrasies and those from the point of view of political economy, particularly challenging the neo-liberal perspectives that continue to dominate political narratives. The final section provides case studies of community engagement, civil action and governance. International case studies bring together contrasting approaches in areas with diverging political directions or intentions, the constraints of laws and the importance of people power. By pursuing an interdisciplinary approach this book produces an information base for academics, practitioners, politicians and activists alike, thus contributing to a fairer political debate that helps to promote more democratic environments that are sustainable, equitable, comfortable and healthier.

Seeing Trees

Seeing Trees
Author: Sonja Dümpelmann
Publsiher: Yale University Press
Total Pages: 349
Release: 2019-01-08
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780300240702

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A fascinating and beautifully illustrated volume that explains what street trees tell us about humanity’s changing relationship with nature and the city Today, cities around the globe are planting street trees to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, as landscape historian Sonja Dümpelmann explains, this is not a new phenomenon. In her eye-opening work, Dümpelmann shows how New York City and Berlin began systematically planting trees to improve the urban climate during the nineteenth century, presenting the history of the practice within its larger social, cultural, and political contexts. A unique integration of empirical research and theory, Dümpelmann’s richly illustrated work uncovers this important untold story. Street trees—variously regarded as sanitizers, nuisances, upholders of virtue, economic engines, and more—reflect the changing relationship between humans and nonhuman nature in urban environments. Offering valuable insights and frameworks, this authoritative volume will be an important resource for years to come.

Seeing Trees

Seeing Trees
Author: Sonja Dümpelmann
Publsiher: Yale University Press
Total Pages: 349
Release: 2019-01-01
Genre: Trees in cities
ISBN: 9780300225785

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"A deep . . . dive into urban society's need for--and relationship with--trees that sought to return the natural world to the concrete jungle."--Adrian Higgins, Washington Post Winner of the Foundation for Landscape Studies' 2019 John Brinckerhoff Jackson Prize Today, cities around the globe are planting street trees to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, as landscape historian Sonja Dümpelmann explains, the planting of street trees in cities to serve specific functions is not a new phenomenon. In her eye-opening work, Dümpelmann shows how New York City and Berlin began systematically planting trees to improve the urban climate during the nineteenth century, presenting the history of the practice within its larger social, cultural, and political contexts. A unique integration of empirical research and theory, Dümpelmann's richly illustrated work uncovers this important untold story. Street trees--variously regarded as sanitizers, nuisances, upholders of virtue, economic engines, and more--reflect the changing relationship between humans and nonhuman nature in urban environments. Offering valuable insights and frameworks, this authoritative volume will be an important resource for years to come.

Urban Forests Trees and Greenspace

Urban Forests  Trees  and Greenspace
Author: L. Anders Sandberg,Adrina Bardekjian,Sadia Butt
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 393
Release: 2014-07-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781134687701

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Urban forests, trees and greenspace are critical in contemporary planning and development of the city. Their study is not only a question of the growth and conservation of green spaces, but also has social, cultural and psychological dimensions. This book brings a perspective of political ecology to the complexities of urban trees and forests through three themes: human agency in urban forests and greenspace; arboreal and greenspace agency in the urban landscape; and actions and interventions in the urban forest. Contributors include leading authorities from North America and Europe from a range of disciplines, including forestry, ecology, geography, landscape design, municipal planning, environmental policy and environmental history.

Trees at Risk Reclaiming an Urban Forest

Trees at Risk  Reclaiming an Urban Forest
Author: Evelyn Herwitz
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2001-01-01
Genre: History
ISBN: 188628458X

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From the Journal of Political Ecology, Vol. 8Trees At Risk: Reclaiming an Urban Forest, by Evelyn Herwitz. Worcester, MA: Chandler House Press, Inc (2001), iv, 200 pp.Reviewed by Brent Evans and Carolyn Chipman Evans, Cibolo Nature Center, Boerne, TXEvelyn Herwitz has contributed a major historical work with a strong environmental message in Trees At Risk: Reclaiming an Urban Forest. The City of Worcester, MA serves as the focal point for this evolving story of grassroots negligence and activism. The author is adept at uncovering the societal and industrial forces that carved a city out of the wilderness, and sometimes molded a little of the wilderness back into the city.An ambitious work, the book is a 200-page treasure with 16 pages of color photos, and numerous illustrations throughout. Nature lovers will also appreciate the occasional botanical information and illustrations of native trees.Trees At Risk is both a hopeful blueprint and a cautionary tale of what cities can do to protect and promote their urban forests, and what can happen if they do not. Ms. Herwitz is a skilled historian, but also a masterful wordsmith. For example: On a chill December afternoon when the hardwoods stand barren, their fallen leaves but sodden dregs of autumn's gold, Worcester's hues are clay and stone. Viewed from Mount St. James, once home to native Nipmucs, now to the College of the Holy Cross, the muted city melds with the dun-colored woodlands of surrounding hills - its red-brick factory buildings and cement offices crowding the valley floor, a glass-and-steel bank tower mirroring winter's slate sky, white and frown and beige three-deckers climbing rocky hillsides, the charcoal-gray swath of I-290snaking over streets.Come spring, though, there is green. First, a fine misting of chartreuse as the weeping willows unfurl their buds, then a wash of emerald as the sugar and Norway maples, the ashes, oaks and ginkgoes spread their leaves, until Worcester's swarthy face is softened by a sylvan veil. A city of aging factories and dreams of renewal, of ethnic pride and paternalism, of grit, ingenuity and determination, Worcester is also a city of trees.Her work reaches far beyond Worcester though, in its lessons and implications. She looks at the national picture of demising urban forests. Statistics abound: "the average life of a city tree is only 32 years - 13 if planted downtown - far short of the 150-year average life span of trees in rural settings." What's more, city tree planting and maintenance budgets have been slashed nationwide, and urban parks are also at risk. The story of the threat to Worcester's trees is the story of the relationship between Americans and nature - at times exploitative, at times romantic, and occasionally reverent. She gives a clear history of the local native landscape, and its gradual civilization. And, throughout the work she provides wonderful snippets of historical significance, like the quote from Genesis that English settlers liked to use to justify their taking of Native land: "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it." But, the settlers proved far more accomplished at subduing than replenishing, as have their offspring, even to this day.The sad history of the wasting of trees, deforestation, and industrial transformation are detailed, as are early conservation efforts in the mid-eighteenth century, and the first use ofpublic funds for tree planting, a century later. She follows the trend of the romantic ideal of pastoral land in rural cemetery design, through to the "Greening or Worcester" in 1885 with the planting of 500 trees by the Worcester Grange.The book traces the urban parks movement, and the inevitable growing demand for green space as the city expanded. Then, it chronicles the turn of the century, and the theme of "Wilderness Squandered." As the Worcester case study continues, Ms. Herwitz examined politics, the railroad, the Hurricane of "38, the Great Depression, ethnic politics and public parks, the Chestnut Blight, and Dutch Elm Disease.As the 20th century gathered momentum, the early precursors to land use controls and planned communities are seen and followed up to current times. As budget cuts and benign neglect took hold, a legacy was being squandered, and the trend was national. "A 1991 survey of urban tree care programs in 20 major American cities by the national conservation group American Forests revealed that nearly three-fourths of those communities had cut back funding for street trees, despite the fact that they had collectively planted only abut one tree for every four needed just to maintain their current tree census."Thus, the powerful story of an urban forest, lost and found again and again, teaches us to open our eyes in our own hometowns. The author then calls us to action, using global numbers that we have almost grown numb to: In the past 50 years, global deforestation and exponential acceleration of fossil fuel consumption and methane gas production have raised the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to about 25 to 30 % above levels that have prevailed for thepast 160,000 years, and could double by the 21st century.The arctic ice cap has thinned by 42%.The world's coral reefs have thinned by 27%.Rainforests could disappear in 25 - 30 years.Air pollution, acid rainIt all adds up, or maybe we should say, it all subtracts, down, down, down.But, she also provides us with hope. She points to good stewardship in Milwaukee, and other positive examples around the country. And, she discusses modern economic forces that are driven by the pressure of population growth and basic human nature. These economic forces are then seen as possible sources of support for the future of our urban forests.Our suggestion is that our cities do in fact have the economic and technological resources to grow magnificent urban forests, but they lack the political will. Further, we would say that political will, rooted in the minds and hearts of the public, can be won through education. There is an old Chinese proverb: "Think one year ahead - plant rice; think ten years ahead - plant trees; think one-hundred years ahead - educate people."And, we would finally suggest that North America's 1200+ nature centers are good places to look to. Nature centers teach environmental values, and are vital members of their communities. While school districts may be slow to advocate for social action or conservation, nature centers are busily doing just that.The education of all citizens, not just the young and not-yet-enfranchised, but the adults, the property owners, the industrial leaders, and our civic representatives - all need education. However, sending them facts and figures, and even sending them this wonderful book, will probably not do the trick. They spend the vast majority oftheir lives indoors. They need contact with nature. If you want to educate someone about the value of trees, take them to an arboretum, or a nature center, or a fabulous old urban park. Once inspired, Trees At Risk can help any community organizer understand what mistakes to avoid, what social forces are in play, and just how much truly is at risk.Evelyn Herwitz deserves the thanks of all the tree-huggers, tree-lovers, and even those not yet educated and inspired. As a boy, Brent's one great and often expressed fear of growing up was that he might someday no longer want to climb trees. Well, he's 54, and still climbing (every now and then)!

Sidewalks

Sidewalks
Author: Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris,Renia Ehrenfeucht
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 344
Release: 2009
Genre: Public spaces
ISBN: 9780262123075

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Urban sidewalks, critical but undervalued public spaces, have been sites for political demonstrations and urban greening, promenades for the wealthy and the well-dressed, and shelterless shelters for the homeless. On sidewalks, decade after decade, urbanites have socialized, paraded and played, sold their wares, and observed city life. These uses often overlap and conflict, and urban residents and planners try to include some and exclude others. In this first book-length analysis of the sidewalk as a distinct public space, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris and Renia Ehrenfeucht examine the evolution of the American urban sidewalk and trace conflicts that have arisen over its competing uses. They discuss the characteristics of sidewalks as small urban public spaces, and such related issues as the ambiguous boundaries of their 'public' status, contestation around specific uses, control and regulations, and the implications for First Amendment speech and assembly rights. Drawing on historical and contemporary examples as well as case study research and archival data from five cities - Boston, Los Angeles, New York, Miami, and Seattle - the authors focus on how the functions and meanings of street activities have shifted and have been negotiated through controls and interventions. They consider sidewalk uses that include the display of individual and group identities (in ethnic and pride parades, for example), the everyday politics of sidewalk access, and larger political actions (including Seattle's 1999 antiglobalization protests), and examine the complex regulatory frameworks that manage street and sidewalk life. The role of urban sidewalks in the early twenty-first century depends, the authors conclude, on what we want from sidewalk life and how we balance competing interests.

The Politics of Planting

The Politics of Planting
Author: Shaul Ephraim Cohen
Publsiher: University of Chicago Press
Total Pages: 226
Release: 1993-06
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 0226112764

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On the open landscape of Israel and the West Bank, where pine and cypress forests grow alongside olive groves, tree planting has become symbolic of conflicting claims to the land. Palestinians cultivate olive groves as a vital agricultural resource, while the Israeli government has made restoration of mixed-growth forests a national priority. Although both sides plant for a variety of purposes, both have used tree planting to assert their presence on—and claim to—disputed land. Shaul Ephraim Cohen has conducted an unprecedented study of planting in the region and the control of land it signifies. In The Politics of Planting, he provides historical background and examines both the politics behind Israel's afforestation policy its consequences. Focusing on the open land surrounding Jerusalem and four Palestinian villages outside the city, this study offers a new perspective on the conflict over land use in a region where planting has become a political tool. For the valuable data it presents—collected from field work, previously unpublished documents, and interviews—and the insight it provides into this political struggle, this will be an important book for anyone studying the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Growth Response of Three Tree Species in Sidewalk Profiles

Growth Response of Three Tree Species in Sidewalk Profiles
Author: Jason Carl Grabosky
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 398
Release: 1999
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: CORNELL:31924085763450

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The material has been demonstrated to be successful in establishing street trees while supplying support for pavement. Several installations have been completed with success, but it is too soon to evaluate the projects for plant response. Those projects are to be monitored over time. A direction for future research of skeletal soils is proposed looking into a fractional system approach for horticultural responses and impacts of organic amendments. Methods of mix design are also proposed, developed and discussed.