The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System RAS

The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System  RAS
Author: Thomas Unger,U. Muscha Steckelings,Robson Augusto Souza dos Santos
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2015-04-18
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128014851

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The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System: Functional Aspects and Therapeutic Implications is the first comprehensive publication to signal the protective role of a distinct part of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), providing readers with early insight into a complex system which will become of major medical importance in the near future. Focusing on recent research, The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System presents a host of new experimental studies on specific components of the RAS, namely angiotensin AT2 receptors (AT2R), the angiotensin (1–7) peptide with its receptor Mas, and the enzyme ACE 2, which exert significant beneficial, health-promoting actions by counterbalancing the well-known harmful arm of the RAS with its classical angiotensin AT1 receptor. This innovative concept of the protective arm of the RAS, examined in this reference, represents an indispensable background and will be a strong support for biomedical students, researchers, cardiologists, surgeons, nephrologists, diabetologists, and endocrinologists, as well as any other physician or researcher concerned with RAS physiology, pathophysiology and clinical implications. Provides a complete understanding of the protective side of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) involving angiotensin AT2 receptor, ACE2, and Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor Combines the knowledge of editors who pioneered research on the protective renin angiotensin system including; Dr. Thomas Unger, one of the founders of AT2 receptor research; Dr. Ulrike M. Steckelings, who contributed significantly to first preclinical studies with a novel specific AT2-agonist, and Dr. Robson Santos who pioneered research on angiotensin-(1-7) and its receptor Mas. Shows that the protective RAS axes are able to ameliorate the course of several cardiovascular, renal, metabolic and neurological diseases Provides the basis for the understanding of a novel therapeutic approach to stimulate components of the protective arm of the RAS.

Angiotensin 1 7

Angiotensin  1 7
Author: Robson Augusto Souza Santos
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2019-08-21
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030226961

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This is the first book addressing in full the most important aspects of the angiotensin-(1-7), the key peptide of the protective axis and the main component in the new modulatory concept of the renin-angiotensin system. It features a detailed review of angiotensin-(1-7) and its receptor Mas, comprising the historical background, enzymatic pathways for generation, functions, integrative aspects of its protective profile, and its therapeutic potential. It also encompasses a comprehensive presentation of current knowledge about its widespread biological actions on several tissues, as well as the most recent scientific achievements, emerging from preclinical and clinical trials. Dr. Santos is a renowned researcher on the Renin-Angiontensin system, with remarkable achievements regarding the role of peptides such as alamandine and angiontensin-(1-7). He has also worked on the potential clinical applicability of angiotensin-(1-7)-related drugs for cardiovascular diseases. He has an extensive publication record in the field, including the publication of the book The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (Academic Press, 2015). Angiotensin-(1-7) will make a unique contribution to the literature and will be an important resource for biomedical students and researchers, medical practitioners and any other professional interested in this peptide and its role in the renin-angiotensin system.

The Role of Plasma ACE2 and Angiotensin Peptides in Heart Failure and Coronavirus Disease

The Role of Plasma ACE2 and Angiotensin Peptides in Heart Failure and Coronavirus Disease
Author: Kaiming Wang
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 0
Release: 2022
Genre: Angiotensins
ISBN: OCLC:1415634235

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Background The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) introduced an alternative protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the ACE2/Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7)/Mas receptor axis, to counterbalance the more renowned pathogenic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/Angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 receptor axis that predominates in disease states due to RAS hyperactivation. As a crucial endogenous regulator of the RAS, ACE2 possesses a catalytically active ectodomain exposed to the circulation that hydrolyzes various vasoactive peptides including, Ang II and angiotensin I (Ang I), generating Ang 1-7 and angiotensin 1-9 (Ang 1-9), respectively. Notably, ACE2 has garnered international attention as the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2, becoming one of the most researched and well-known human proteins. A soluble form of ACE2 is shed from the membrane through proteolytic cleavage by a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), resulting in diminished ACE2-mediated tissue protection under pathological conditions. We propose that the dysregulation of plasma angiotensin peptides and ACE2 is a molecular signature of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases and can further serve as prognostic markers for adverse clinical outcomes in heart failure (Chapter 2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (Chapter 3). Methods and Results In Chapter 2, we prospectively enrolled 110 patients with heart failure from outpatient clinics and the emergency department to perform comprehensive profiling of circulating and equilibrium levels of plasma angiotensin peptides using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. We found that an elevation in the ratio between Ang 1-7 to Ang II, effector peptides of the protective and harmful axis of the RAS, respectively, served as an independent and incremental predictor of beneficial outcomes, better survival rate, and reduced hospitalization duration. Although multiple peptidases participate in the proteolytic processing of Ang 1-7 and Ang II, ACE2 is a direct regulator of the Ang 1-7/Ang II ratio, and its dysregulation contributes to RAS imbalance resulting in adverse clinical outcomes. In Chapter 3, we prospectively enrolled 242 consecutive patients admitted to hospital wards designated for COVID-19 or intensive care units to measure plasma soluble ACE2 and other established disease markers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and angiotensin peptides through LC-MS/MS at admission and repeated sampling on day seven. We found that an upward trajectory in soluble ACE2 was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality and incidence of acute myocardial injury and circulatory shock. In contrast, patients who survived the COVID-19 hospitalization were characterized by a substantial reduction in soluble ACE2. Additionally, we found a prominent elevation in plasma Ang I and Ang 1-7 levels in patients with COVID-19 accompanied by downregulated plasma ACE activity at hospital admission, likely due to the extensive pulmonary vascular endothelial injuries during SARS-CoV-2 infections. Conclusions Heart failure and COVID-19 shares mutual disease pathophysiology in forms of dysregulation in ACE2 and the RAS. Importantly, plasma angiotensin peptide and soluble ACE2 levels can be effectively monitored through disease progression to facilitate a personalized biomarker-guided approach for risk stratification and the implementation of medical therapies against these conditions. Moreover, our data suggest a potential role of ADAM17 inhibition and the development of novel strategies to enhance the beneficial ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas axis to improve patient outcomes in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

Textbook of Nephro Endocrinology

Textbook of Nephro Endocrinology
Author: Ajay K. Singh,Gordon H. Williams
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 534
Release: 2009-01-12
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780080920467

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The Textbook of Nephro-Endocrinology is the definitive translational reference in the field of nephro-endocrinology, investigating both the endocrine functions of the kidneys and how the kidney acts as a target for hormones from other organ systems. It offers researchers and clinicians expert, gold-standard analyses of nephro-endocrine research and translation into the treatment of diseases such as anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), rickets, osteoporosis, and, hypoparathyroidism. Investigates both the endocrine functions of the kidneys and how the kidney acts as a target for hormones from other organ systems Presents a uniquely comprehensive and cross-disciplinary look at all aspects of nephro-endocrine disorders in one reference work Clear translational presentations by the top endocrinologists and nephrologists in each specific hormone or functional/systems field

Aldosterone Mineralocorticoid Receptor

Aldosterone Mineralocorticoid Receptor
Author: Brian Harvey,Frederic Jaisser
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2019-09-25
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781839621987

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This book is an open access dissemination of the EU COST Action ADMIRE in Aldosterone/Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) physiology and pathophysiology. Aldosterone is the major hormone regulating blood pressure. Alterations in blood levels of aldosterone and genetic mutations in the MR receptor are major causes of hypertension and comorbidities. Many of the drugs in clinical use, and in development for treating hypertension, target aldosterone and MR actions in the kidney and cardiovascular system. The ADMIRE book assembles review chapters from 16 European ADMIRE laboratories providing the latest insights into mechanisms of aldosterone synthesis/secretion, aldosterone/MR physiology and signaling, and the pathophysiological roles of aldosterone/MR activation.

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Author: Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2015-10-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128016725

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The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease synthesizes the existing knowledge on how the in utero environment could be the most important environment in shaping later risk for various diseases or to conversely promote the health of the offspring. The book mines the existing literature from a variety of disciplines from toxicology to nutrition to epigenetics to reveal how contrasting maternal in utero environmental changes might be leading to epigenetic convergence and the resulting deleterious phenotypic and physiological effects in our offspring. It is increasingly becoming apparent that even subtle changes in the mother’s diet, stress, and exposure to low concentrations of toxic chemicals at levels deemed safe by the EPA and FDA, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), can dramatically impact the health of our children, possibly leading to metabolic, cardiovascular, immunological, neurobehavioral disorders, and increased risk for cancer to list but a few examples. Informs how everyday choices pregnant women make can impact child development Ties together how in utero environmental changes may be inducing epigenetic changes in the offspring leading to overlapping phenotypes regardless of the initial insult (toxic, nutrition, or stress) Includes a boxed-in area in each chapter for further references and resources to keep up with the field Features video interviews with the authors and other key leaders in the field

The Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular Disease

The Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular Disease
Author: Naranjan S. Dhalla,Sukhwinder K. Bhullar,Anureet K. Shah
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 453
Release: 2023-01-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783031149528

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This book on “Renin-Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular Disease” includes 25 chapters, which are organized in three sections, namely (i) modulatory aspects, (ii) pathophysiological aspects, and (iii) pharmacotherapeutic aspects. It includes an updated as well as comprehensive knowledge about molecular and cellular aspects for the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathophysiology and therapy of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. This book emphasizes the molecular and cellular mechanisms, signaling transduction pathways involved in the development of different cardiovascular diseases due to the prolonged activation of RAS. Furthermore, biochemical mechanisms are outlined for the inhibition of this system by the blockade of angiotensin converting enzyme as well as angiotensin II type 1 receptors in patients suffering from cardiovascular abnormalities. Since cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide, leading to approximately 17.9 million deaths each year, there is a keen interest in understanding the pathogenesis and improving its therapy. In this regard, we can attest that this book provides ample information about essential components of RAS and their role in the development of cardiovascular disease. From the selection of recognized global experts in their area of investigation, this book can be seen to cover diverse cardiovascular aspects and molecular and cellular mechanisms of angiotensin II action for the development of different cardiovascular abnormalities. It is our contention that this book will be most suitable for promoting knowledge in the field of RAS biology and will be of great interest to health professionals involved in both experimental and clinical cardiology as well as academic investigators and cardiovascular scientists, graduate students, and fellows worldwide.

Renin Angiotensin System

Renin Angiotensin System
Author: Anna Tolekova
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2017-07-12
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789535133513

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Exploring the contractile activity of smooth muscle segments isolated from various organs of healthy animals and animals with experimentally induced diabetes, she obtained original data about angiotensin II-induced force and time parameters. For the first time, she established the effect of ghrelin on angiotensin II-provoked contraction of the urinary bladder. Original data on the role of both types of angiotensin receptors for the contractile activity of the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract and bladder were obtained. By applying specific software for force and time parameter analysis, the contribution of different types of angiotensin receptors on muscle contractility has been shown. The new methodology was used to analyze the data obtained during the registration of smooth muscle relaxation activity, which allows the determination of not only the magnitude of the mechanical response but also the parameters related to the time and speed of the contractions. Plasma renin activity models have been developed using mathematical approaches to predict the effect of different drug doses on the behavior of the system.