Troubleshooting Rubber Problems

Troubleshooting Rubber Problems
Author: John Sommer
Publsiher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
Total Pages: 310
Release: 2014-01-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781569905548

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Many challenges confront the rubber technologist in the development, manufacture, and use of rubber products. These challenges include selecting and combining materials to form rubber compounds suitable for processing, successfully operating a range of manufacturing equipment, and meeting product performance in difficult and diverse environments. Case studies and literature references relate problem solutions to the everyday experience of the rubber technologist. From materials to processes to products, this book identifies many different rubber-related problems and suggests approaches to solve them. Contents: • TSE and TPE Materials, Compounds, Processes, and Products • TSE Materials and Compounds • TSE Processes and Equipment • TSE Products • TPE Materials and Compounds • TPE Processes and Equipment • TPE Products

Troubleshooting Injection Moulding

Troubleshooting Injection Moulding
Author: Vannessa Goodsgip
Publsiher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2004
Genre: Injection blow molding
ISBN: 185957470X

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Annotation Injection moulding is one of the most commonly used processing technologies for plastics materials. Proper machine set up, part and mould design, and material selection can lead to high quality production. This review outlines common factors to check when preparing to injection mould components, so that costly mistakes can be avoided. This review examines the different types of surface defects that can be identified in plastics parts and looks at ways of solving these problems. Useful flow charts to illustrate possible ways forward are included. Case studies and a large b257 of figures make this a very useful report.

Rubber to Metal Bonding

Rubber to Metal Bonding
Author: B. G. Crowther
Publsiher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Total Pages: 98
Release: 1996
Genre: Elastomers
ISBN: 1859570623

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This section of industry is currently at a crossroads brought about by atmospheric anti-pollution legislation which restricts the choice of solvents, and this problem is addressed in his review with a discussion of new practices such as the use of water-based systems. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Bonding Elastomers

Bonding Elastomers
Author: G. Polaski,J. Means
Publsiher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Total Pages: 154
Release: 2005
Genre: Adhesives
ISBN: 1859574955

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This review has been written as a practical approach to bonding various kinds of elastomers to substrates such as steel and plastics, as used in the manufacture of diverse products such as rubber covered rolls, urethane fork lift wheels, rubber lining for chemical storage or solid rocket motors, engine bushes and mounts, seals for transmissions, electrical power connectors and military tank track pads. Based on the authors' years of experience working closely with end-use customers and it offers a thorough overview of how to successfully bond rubber to a given substrate in the manufacture of quality rubber engineered components. This review is supported by an indexed section containing several hundred key references and abstracts selected from the Rapra Abstracts database.

Rubber Processing

Rubber Processing
Author: Peter S. Johnson
Publsiher: Hanser Gardner Publications
Total Pages: 145
Release: 2001
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 1569903093

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1 Overview of Rubber Processing p. 1 1.1 Introduction p. 1 1.2 Testing p. 2 1.2.1 Raw Materials Quality Assurance p. 2 1.2.2 Processability Testing of Mixed Compounds p. 2 1.2.3 End Product Testing p. 3 1.3 Conclusion p. 3 References p. 4 2 Raw Materials Acceptance and Specifications p. 5 2.1 Introduction p. 5 2.2 Raw Materials Specifications p. 5 2.2.1 Elastomers p. 6 2.2.2 Fillers p. 7 3 Mixing of Rubber Compounds p. 9 3.1 Introduction p. 9 3.2 Material Flow to the Mixer p. 10 3.2.1 Receipt and Storage of Raw Materials p. 11 3.2.2 Feeding, Weighing, and Charging Raw Materials p. 12 Weighing Major Ingredients p. 14 Small Component Weighing p. 14 3.3 The Mixing Process p. 15 3.3.1 Incorporation p. 16 3.3.2 Dispersion p. 17 3.3.3 Distribution p. 19 3.3.4 Plasticization p. 20 3.3.5 Natural Rubber Mastication p. 20 3.3.6 Flow Visualization and Modeling of the Mixing Process p. 20 Flow Visualization p. 21 Modeling p. 21 3.3.7 Flow Behavior on Mills p. 24 3.4 Internal Mixers p. 26 3.4.1 Developments in Internal Mixers p. 29 Farrel Mixers p. 29 Kobelco Stewart Bolling Mixers p. 30 Krupp-Midwest Werner und Pfleiderer Mixers p. 31 Pomini Mixers p. 31 3.4.2 Choosing a Mixer p. 32 3.4.3 Inspection and Preventative Maintenance of Mixers p. 32 3.4.4 Internal Mixer Operation p. 33 Mixing Procedures p. 33 Temperature Control in Internal Mixers p. 37 Rotor Speed p. 37 Ram Pressure p. 38 Batch Size p. 38 Dump Criteria p. 40 3.4.5 Control of the Mixing Process p. 41 3.4.6 Scale-Up p. 41 3.5 Take-Off Systems p. 43 3.5.1 Dump Mills p. 43 3.5.2 Packaging p. 44 3.5.3 Single Pass Mixing p. 45 3.6 Other Mixing Equipment p. 45 3.6.1 Mill Mixing p. 45 3.6.2 Continuous Mixing p. 47 3.7 Custom Compounding p. 47 3.8 Troubleshooting the Mixing Process p. 48 3.8.1 Inadequate Dispersion or Distribution p. 49 3.8.2 Scorchy Compound p. 49 3.8.3 Contamination p. 49 3.8.4 Poor Handling on Dump Mill p. 49 3.8.5 Batch-to-Batch Variation p. 49 3.9 Concluding Comments p. 50 References p. 50 4 Flow Behavior of Compounds p. 53 4.1 Introduction p. 53 4.2 Fundamentals of Rheology p. 53 4.3 Effect of Compounding Ingredients on Processing Behavior p. 58 4.3.1 Elastomers p. 58 4.3.2 Fillers p. 59 Carbon Blacks p. 59 4.3.3 Plasticizers and Processing Aids p. 60 Plasticizers p. 61 Processing Aids p. 62 4.3.4 Elasticity p. 63 4.3.5 Conclusion p. 64 References p. 64 5 Testing of Compounds After Mixing p. 65 5.1 Introduction p. 65 5.2 Processability Test Instruments p. 68 5.2.1 The Mooney Viscometer p. 68 Delta Mooney p. 69 TMS Rheometer p. 70 5.2.2 Capillary Rheometers p. 80 5.2.3 Oscillating Disk Curemeters p. 73 5.2.4 Rotorless Curemeters p. 75 5.2.5 Dynamic Mechanical Rheological Testers p. 75 5.2.6 Stress Relaxation Instruments p. 75 5.2.7 ODR Cure Times Correlation with MDR p. 77 5.3 Comparison of Alpha Technologies Processability Test Instruments p. 78 5.4 Conclusion p. 80 References p. 80 6 The Curing Process p. 83 6.1 Introduction p. 84 6.2 Scorch or Premature Vulcanization p. 84 References p. 85 7 Calendering of Rubber p. 87 7.1 Introduction p. 87 7.2 Equipment p. 87 7.3 Processes p. 88 7.3.1 Feeding p. 88 7.3.2 Sheeting p. 88 7.3.3 Frictioning p. 88 7.3.4 Coating p. 89 7.3.5 Roller Dies p. 89 7.3.6 Downstream Processes p. 90 7.4 Modeling the Calendering Process p. 90 7.5 Troubleshooting Problems in Calendering p. 91 7.5.1 Scorch p. 91 7.5.2 Blistering p. 91 7.5.3 Rough or Holed Sheet p. 91 7.5.4 Tack p. 91 7.5.5 Bloom p. 91 7.6 Conclusions p. 91 References p. 92 8 Extrusion of Rubber p. 93 8.1 Introduction p. 93 8.2 Feeding p. 93 8.2.1 Cold-Feed versus Hot-Feed Extruders p. 94 8.3 Mass Transfer, Conveying, or Pumping p. 96 8.3.1 Flow Mechanism p. 97 8.3.2 Extruder Designs p. 98 The Maillefer Screw p. 99 The Iddon Screw p. 100 The Transfermix p. 101 The EVK Screw p. 101 The Pin Barrel Extruder p. 101 The Cavity Transfer Mixer p. 102 Vented Extruders p. 104 Dump Extruders p. 104 Strainers p. 105 Extruder Barrels p. 105 8.4 Extruder Operation and Control p. 105 8.5 Shaping p. 108 8.5.1 Extruder Heads p. 108 Coextrusion p. 109 Crossheading p. 109 Shear Heads p. 109 8.5.2 Dies p. 111 Pressure Drop p. 111 Die Swell p. 111 8.6 Take-Off and Curing p. 112 8.6.1 Continuous Vulcanization Systems p. 113 Pressurized Steam Systems p. 113 Hot Air Curing Systems p. 113 Hot Air Fluidized Bed Systems p. 114 Liquid Salt Bath Systems p. 114 Microwave Systems p. 114 Shear Head Systems p. 115 Electron Beam Systems p. 115 Steel Belt Presses p. 116 Ultrasonic Vulcanization p. 116 8.7 Troubleshooting the Extrusion Process p. 116 8.7.1 Low Output Rate p. 116 8.7.2 Poor Dimensional Stability of Extrudate p. 117 8.7.3 Excessive Heat Buildup in Compound p. 117 8.7.4 Rough Surface on Extrudate p. 117 8.7.5 Contamination p. 117 8.7.6 Porosity in Extrudate p. 117 8.7.7 Strip Difficult to Feed p. 117 8.7.8 Surging Output p. 118 8.8 Concluding Comments p. 118 References p. 118 9 Molding of Rubber p. 119 9.1 Introduction p. 119 9.2 Compression and Transfer Molding p. 120 9.3 Injection Molding of Rubber p. 122 9.3.1 Injection Molding Equipment p. 125 Delivery Systems p. 125 Nozzles, Runners, and Gates p. 127 Molds p. 128 Automatic Ejection p. 129 Deflashing p. 129 9.3.2 The Injection Molding Process p. 130 Injection Temperature p. 130 Screw Speed p. 131 Back Pressure p. 131 Injection Pressure p. 131 Summary p. 131 9.3.3 Monitoring and Modeling the Injection Molding Process p. 131 9.3.4 Control of the Injection Molding Process p. 132 9.3.5 Compounds for Injection Molding p. 133 9.3.6 Problems in Injection Molding of Rubber p. 133 References p. 136 10 Finished Product Testing p. 137 10.1 Introduction p. 137 10.2 Test of Filler Distribution and Dispersion p. 138 10.2.1 Microscopy p. 138 10.2.2 Surface Roughness p. 138 10.3 Tests on Cured Specimens p. 138 10.3.1 Tensile Tests p. 139 10.3.2 Hardness p. 139 10.3.3 Compression Set p. 139 10.3.4 Solvent Resistance p. 140 10.3.5 Aging p. 140 10.3.6 Ozone Cracking p. 140 References p. 140 Index p. 143.

Save Yourself How You CAN Troubleshoot Your Own Audio Video Problems

Save Yourself  How You CAN Troubleshoot Your Own Audio Video Problems
Author: Fred Whissel
Total Pages: 130
Release: 2007-07
Genre: Humor
ISBN: 9780615155654

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You really can find and fix many of your own audio/video problems, and this book not only shows you how but claims it can be fun! The author spent more than 20 years troubleshooting the same problems for his Jackson Hole, Wyoming customers -- many of whom were "rich and famous" celebrities. Harrison Ford, Gerry Spence, Bo Derek, Bob Ballard -- you'll read about them (and others) here. Plus, you'll find real troubleshooting tips. But if you somehow screw up a repair and end up dead, don't come running back to us to complain.

Pipe repair problem

Pipe repair problem
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 32
Release: 1989
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: IND:30000106340007

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The Bicycling Guide to Complete Bicycle Maintenance Repair for Road Mountain Bikes

The Bicycling Guide to Complete Bicycle Maintenance   Repair for Road   Mountain Bikes
Author: Todd Downs
Publsiher: Rodale
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2005
Genre: Bicycles
ISBN: 1594863423

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A guide to bicycle maintenance and repair covers frames, wheels, chains, gear shifts, tools, adjustments, and safety.