Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention
Author: Golnaz Baghdadi,Farzad Towhidkhah,Mojdeh Rajabi
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 444
Release: 2021-03-16
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780323909365

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Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention: Computational Models, Physiology, and Disease States describes the brain mechanisms underlying the attention control system, how those mechanisms are examined, how they operate in different disease states, and methods for improving them. Conceptual models of attention further explore their functional operation. Coverage includes the different types of attention, processing paths, brain anatomy, and attention’s role in memory and movement. Factors affecting attention are explored including nutrition, exercise, and genetics. Neurocognitive disorders impacting attention are discussed including autism, ADHD, OCD, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Assessment methods and treatments are uniquely set against the backdrop of current conceptual, computational, and oscillatory-based models to encourage researchers to pursue continued development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Examines brain mechanisms underlying different types of attention Explores how nutrition, exercise, genetics and more impact attention Identifies impact on attention of neurocognitive diseases and disorders Includes therapeutic advances to improve attention Provides computational models via companion website

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Movement Based Embodied Contemplative Practices

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Movement Based Embodied Contemplative Practices
Author: Laura Schmalzl,Catherine E. Kerr
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 217
Release: 2016-07-05
Genre: Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
ISBN: 9782889198948

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Relative to the extensive neuroscientific work on seated meditation practices, far less studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying movement-based contemplative practices such as yoga or tai chi. Movement-based practices have, however, been found to be effective for relieving the symptoms of several clinical conditions, and to elicit measurable changes in physiological, neural, and behavioral parameters in healthy individuals. An important challenge for neuroscience is therefore to advance our understanding of the neurophysiological and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying these observed effects, and this Research Topic aims to make a contribution in this regard. It showcases the current state of the art of investigations on movement-based practices including yoga, tai chi, the Feldenkrais Method, as well as dance. Featured contributions include empirical research, proposals of theoretical frameworks, as well as novel perspectives on a variety of issues relevant to the field. This Research Topic is the first of its kind to specifically attempt a neurophysiological and neurocognitive characterization that spans multiple mindful movement approaches, and we trust it will be of interest to basic scientists, clinical researchers, and contemplative practitioners alike.

Your Attention Please

Your Attention Please
Author: Sabrina Lemire-Rodger
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 0
Release: 2020
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1362900314

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Our brains ability to direct our attention requires paradoxical processing. We must be able to focus and maintain our attention without allowing external stimuli to lure us off task. Yet, we must also be able to shift our attention flexibly to switch tasks in response to relevant cues. Unitary accounts of attention maintain that these abilities rely on similar or identical neurocognitive mechanisms, while fractionated models propose that these are dissociable processes. Here, we investigated the relationship between sustained attention and task switching both behaviourally and at the level of the brain. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of participants performance on several cognitive switching and sustained attention tasks and found that the observed pattern of performance is consistent with two separate but related factors. We then extended these findings using neuroimaging methods. A multivariate, data-driven analysis of brain activity revealed that sustained attention and task switching are also associated with distinct patterns of activation across the brain. Behavioural performance on each type of task correlated with activity in non-overlapping frontoparietal areas. As participants reaction time increased over time on a task of sustained attention, they recruited a set of right-lateralized regions associated with stimuli-related processing. Concurrently, when participants showed greater differences in reaction time between switch trials and repeat trials, they recruited areas associated with enhanced goal-directed processing in both hemispheres. Our results provide compelling evidence for the dissociation of sustained attention and task switching, both in terms of behavioural performance and patterns of brain activity. We review these findings in the context of existing models of attention and discuss possible clinical implications.

Gene Expression to Neurobiology and Behaviour

Gene Expression to Neurobiology and Behaviour
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2011-04-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780444538857

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How does the genome, interacting with the multi-faceted environment, translate into the development by which the human brain achieves its astonishing, adaptive array of cognitive and behavioral capacities? Why and how does this process sometimes lead to neurodevelopmental disorders with a major, lifelong personal and social impact? This volume of Progress in Brain Research links findings on the structural development of the human brain, the expression of genes in behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, environmental effects on brain development, and developmental processes in perception, action, attention, cognitive control, social cognition, and language, in an attempt to answer these questions. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Collective Emotions

Collective Emotions
Author: Christian von Scheve,Mikko Salmella
Publsiher: Affective Science
Total Pages: 478
Release: 2014
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780199659180

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This book presents a comprehensive overview of contemporary theories and research on collective emotions. It spans several disciplines and brings together, for the first time, various strands of inquiry and up-to-date research in the study of collective emotions and related phenomena. In focusing on conceptual, theoretical, and methodological issues in collective emotion research, the volume narrows the gap between the wealth of studies on individual emotions and inquiries into collective emotions. The book catches up with a renewed interest into the collective dimensions of emotions and their close relatives, for example emotional climates, atmospheres, communities, and intergroup emotions.

Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency

Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency
Author: Norman Segalowitz
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2010-08-09
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
ISBN: 9781136968839

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Winner of the 2011 Kenneth W. Mildenberger Prize Exploring fluency from multiple vantage points that together constitute a cognitive science perspective, this book examines research in second language acquisition and bilingualism that points to promising avenues for understanding and promoting second language fluency. Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency covers essential topics such as units of analysis for measuring fluency, the relation of second language fluency to general cognitive fluidity, social and motivational contributors to fluency, and neural correlates of fluency. The author provides clear and accessible summaries of foundational empirical work on speech production, automaticity, lexical access, and other issues of relevance to second language acquisition theory. Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency is a valuable reference for scholars in SLA, cognitive psychology, and language teaching, and it can also serve as an ideal textbook for advanced courses in these fields.

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Type 1 and Type 2 Decision Making Processes

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Type 1 and Type 2 Decision Making Processes
Author: Chad Williams
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1199633983

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In an attempt to understand how humans make decisions, a wealth of researchers have explored the commonalities of different decision making demands. Two ranges of systems have been classified. Whereas Type 1 decision making is fast, automatic, and effortless, Type 2 judgments are slow, contemplative, and effortful. Here, I sought to determine underlying mechanisms of these processes. To do this, I present an extensive review and two electroencephalogram experiments. My review addresses theoretical models defining Type 1 and Type 2 decision making, discusses the debate between dual-process and continuous frameworks, proposes a novel insight into how these processes are selected and executed, and outlines neuro-anatomical findings. In one experiment, participants retained digits (Type 1 processes) and completed mathematical computations (Type 2 processes). I found that cognitive control - as reflected by frontal theta - and attentional mechanisms - as reflected by parietal alpha - are core mechanisms in Type 1 and Type 2 decision making. In a second experiment, I sought to replicate these findings when trained students diagnosed diseases. Differences in theta and alpha activity were not seen. I posit that the discrepancy between experiments may be because cognitive control relies on uncertainty which existed in experiment one but not experiment two. Moreover, attentional mechanisms involve the retrieval of knowledge in which the demands would have differed in experiment one but not two. I conclude by describing how cognitive control and attention fit into my hypothesis of different decision making steps: process selection and execution. These findings are important as they could lead to the assessment of decision making processes in real-world contexts, for example with clinicians in the hospital. Moreover, they could be used in biofeedback training to optimize decisions.

The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment

The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment
Author: Maaike Cima
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 390
Release: 2016-06-10
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781317267034

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The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment explores the relationship between psychopathology and criminal behaviour in juveniles and adults. It provides a detailed explanation of the developmental pathway from the process of increasing criminal behaviour and becoming a forensic patient, to assessment, treatment and rehabilitation. Incorporating theoretical and scientific research reviews, as well as reviews regarding forensic rehabilitation, the book covers the theory, maintenance and treatment of psychopathology in offenders who have committed a crime. The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment will be of interest to masters and postgraduate students studying the relationship between psychopathology and crime, as well as researchers and clinicians working in forensic psychiatry institutions or departments.