Witches Midwives and Nurses

Witches  Midwives and Nurses
Author: Barbara Ehrenreich,Deirdre English
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 76
Release: 1976
Genre: Medicine, Magic, mystic, and spagiric
ISBN: STANFORD:36105004538364

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Traditionally women have been healers who also used empirical evidence and proven techniques to heal. Yet male "doctors", who based their healing practices on the whims of the Church, continuously tried to discredit these successful healers. Throughout the 14th-17th centuries in Europe, these doctors labeled women healers witches and had them executed to maintain their authority and their authority and that of the Church and the ruling class. These witches treated peasants and may have led peasant rebellions. Another way of barring women from the male and, supposedly, "correct" system was establishing medical schools in Medieval Europe which barred women. These techniques were successful in that the emerging middle classes viewed traditional women healers as superstitious and even went so far as to allow males into the last preserve of female healing--midwifery. In colonial America and the early years of the US, women partook equally in people's medicine. Anyone who claimed to heal--regardless of sex, race, or formal training- -could practice medicine. In the early 1800s, however, a group of male, middle class "regular" doctors began their campaign to rid the US of lay practitioners. The Popular Health Movement of the 1830s-1840s set them back, however, and the working class denounced medical elitism. On the offensive in 1848, the regulars formed a national professional organization called the American Medical Association. This began the suppression of women practitioners which included suggesting that respectable women would not travel at night and barring women from medical schools. Further, the medical profession put pressure on states to outlaw midwifery and allow doctors only to practice obstetrics. Nursing remained that last female domain in health and, due to nurse reformers, nurses became subservient, patient, obedient helpers. Women had found their "rightful" place in medicine.

Witches Midwives Nurses Second Edition

Witches  Midwives    Nurses  Second Edition
Author: Barbara Ehrenreich,Deirdre English
Publsiher: The Feminist Press at CUNY
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2010-07-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 155861690X

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As we watch another agonizing attempt to shift the future of healthcare in the United States, we are reminded of the longevity of this crisis, and how firmly entrenched we are in a system that doesn't work. Witches, Midwives, and Nurses, first published by the Feminist Press in 1973, is an essential book about the corruption of the medical establishment and its historic roots in witch hunters. In this new edition, Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English have written an entirely new chapter that delves into the current fascination with and controversies about witches, exposing our fears and fantasies. They build on their classic exposé on the demonization of women healers and the political and economic monopolization of medicine. This quick history brings us up-to-date, exploring today's changing attitudes toward childbirth, alternative medicine, and modern-day witches.

Complaints and Disorders

Complaints and Disorders
Author: Barbara Ehrenreich,Deirdre English
Publsiher: Feminist Press at CUNY
Total Pages: 108
Release: 1973
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: STANFORD:36105004482498

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In this sequel to their underground bestseller Witches, Midwives, and Nurses, Ehrenreich and English document the tradition of American sexism in medicine before and after the turn of the century. Citing numerous 'treatments' and 'rest cures' perpetrated on women through the decades, they analyze the biomedical rationales used to justify sex discrimination.

Woman as Healer

Woman as Healer
Author: Jeanne Achterberg
Publsiher: Shambhala Publications
Total Pages: 268
Release: 1991-03-13
Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit
ISBN: 9780834828711

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This groundbreaking work examines the role of women in the Western healing traditions. Drawing on the disciplines of history, anthropology, botany, archaeology, and the behavioral sciences, Jeanne Achterberg discusses the ancient cultures in which women worked as independent and honored healers; the persecution of women healers in the witch hunts of the Middle Ages; the development of midwifery and nursing as women's professions in the nineteenth century; and the current role of women and the state of the healing arts, as a time of crisis in the health-care professions coincides with the reemergence of feminine values.

In Defense of Witches

In Defense of Witches
Author: Mona Chollet
Publsiher: St. Martin's Press
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2022-03-08
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781250272225

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Mona Chollet's In Defense of Witches is a “brilliant, well-documented” celebration (Le Monde) by an acclaimed French feminist of the witch as a symbol of female rebellion and independence in the face of misogyny and persecution. Centuries after the infamous witch hunts that swept through Europe and America, witches continue to hold a unique fascination for many: as fairy tale villains, practitioners of pagan religion, as well as feminist icons. Witches are both the ultimate victim and the stubborn, elusive rebel. But who were the women who were accused and often killed for witchcraft? What types of women have centuries of terror censored, eliminated, and repressed? Celebrated feminist writer Mona Chollet explores three types of women who were accused of witchcraft and persecuted: the independent woman, since widows and celibates were particularly targeted; the childless woman, since the time of the hunts marked the end of tolerance for those who claimed to control their fertility; and the elderly woman, who has always been an object of at best, pity, and at worst, horror. Examining modern society, Chollet concludes that these women continue to be harrassed and oppressed. Rather than being a brief moment in history, the persecution of witches is an example of society’s seemingly eternal misogyny, while women today are direct heirs to those who were hunted down and killed for their thoughts and actions. With fiery prose and arguments that range from the scholarly to the cultural, In Defense of Witches seeks to unite the mythic image of the witch with modern women who seek to live their lives on their own terms.

Witches Witch Hunting and Women

Witches  Witch Hunting  and Women
Author: Silvia Federici
Publsiher: PM Press
Total Pages: 120
Release: 2018-10-01
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781629635842

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We are witnessing a new surge of interpersonal and institutional violence against women, including new witch hunts. This surge of violence has occurred alongside an expansion of capitalist social relations. In this new work that revisits some of the main themes of Caliban and the Witch, Silvia Federici examines the root causes of these developments and outlines the consequences for the women affected and their communities. She argues that, no less than the witch hunts in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe and the “New World,” this new war on women is a structural element of the new forms of capitalist accumulation. These processes are founded on the destruction of people’s most basic means of reproduction. Like at the dawn of capitalism, what we discover behind today’s violence against women are processes of enclosure, land dispossession, and the remolding of women’s reproductive activities and subjectivity. As well as an investigation into the causes of this new violence, the book is also a feminist call to arms. Federici’s work provides new ways of understanding the methods in which women are resisting victimization and offers a powerful reminder that reconstructing the memory of the past is crucial for the struggles of the present.

Baby Catcher

Baby Catcher
Author: Peggy Vincent
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2003-04-15
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
ISBN: 0743219341

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In this engaging account of her career as a midwife, Vincent describes the hilarious, sometimes frightening, events surrounding the appearance of a new human being. More than a collection of unforgettable stories, "Baby Catcher" is a clarion call for a less technological, more personalized approach to childbirth in this country.

For Her Own Good

For Her Own Good
Author: Barbara Ehrenreich,Deirdre English
Publsiher: Anchor
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2013-10-02
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9780307764164

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This women's history classic brilliantly exposed the constraints imposed on women in the name of science and exposes the myths used to control them. Since the the nineteenth century, professionals have been invoking scientific expertise to prescribe what women should do for their own good. Among the experts’ diagnoses and remedies: menstruation was an illness requiring seclusion; pregnancy, a disabling condition; and higher education, a threat to long-term health of the uterus. From clitoridectomies to tame women’s behavior in the nineteenth century to the censure of a generation of mothers as castrators in the 1950s, doctors have not hesitated to intervene in women’s sexual, emotional, and maternal lives. Even domesticity, the most popular prescription for a safe environment for woman, spawned legions of “scientific” experts. Barbara Ehrenreich and Dierdre English has never lost faith in science itself, butinsist that we hold those who interpret it to higher standards. Women are entering the medical and scientific professions in greater numbers but as recent research shows, experts continue to use pseudoscience to tell women how to live. For Her Own Good provides today’s readers with an indispensable dose of informed skepticism.