Zoonotic Viruses of Northern Eurasia

Zoonotic Viruses of Northern Eurasia
Author: Dimitry Konstantinovich Lvov,Mikhail Yurievich Shchelkanov,Sergey Vladimirovich Alkhovsky,Petr Grigorievich Deryabin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 452
Release: 2015-05-25
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128018446

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Zoonotic Viruses of Northern Eurasia: Taxonomy and Ecology provides a review of modern data of the taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of zoonotic viruses in the ecosystems of Northern Eurasia. With climate changes, increasing population density of arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts, development of unused lands, transferences of viruses by birds, bats, infected humans, and animals, vectors allow virus populations to adapt to the new environment. This leads to the appearance of emerging or re-emerging infections. This book presents data about circulation and evolution of influenza viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, hantaviruses, Sindbis virus, California encephalitis group viruses and other pathogenic viruses as well as of novel viruses classified for the first time using next-generation sequence. Features summarized data about the circulation of approximately 80 viruses isolated in natural foci of Northern Eurasia Provides descriptions of the main ecosystems of Northern Eurasia in the context of the ecology of viruses with environmental factors Delineates the potential impact of climate change for the distribution of viruses Includes virus taxonomy, ecology, distribution and pathogenicity for humans and animals

Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides

Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides
Author: Charles H. Calisher,Diane E. Griffin
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2013-12-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783709105726

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In this period of obvious natural emergence of viral and other diseases, it is unclear as to what diseases are emerging, why they are emerging, and what, if anything, can be done to prevent or diminish their impact. This book, a compendium of presentations made at an international meeting of experts, provides summaries of areas of concern and details as to how disease agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses in Australasia and West Nile virus in the Americas might have suddenly appeared. Either by alterations in natural habitats and diversity or by chance, pathogens emerge from time to time. This book addresses various aspects of such emergences, such as pathogenetic mechanisms of viruses, diagnosis of viral infections, viral host-management strategies, viral genetics, vaccine development and application. It is especially valuable for laboratory virologists, disease ecologists, physicians, and those who want to understand the complexities of viral characteristics.

History of Arbovirology Memories from the Field

History of Arbovirology  Memories from the Field
Author: Nikos Vasilakis,Laura D. Kramer
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 535
Release: 2023-07-29
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783031220036

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These books bring together a panel of expert arbovirologists who recall the history of arbovirology from very personal perspectives. In these timely volumes, the authors describe seminal moments in their experiences in the field and how they integrated these findings with lab studies to further clarify the ecology and epidemiology of diverse arboviruses. Authors identify the most pressing questions that remain to be answered, providing a basis for current research and a stimulus to engage those entering the field. Over the last 20 years a generational gap has developed between the giants of arbovirus research and discovery and the new generation. This gap developed due to an ebbing of training and investment in passing the scepter to the next generation, leading to a lack of continuity among the generations that threatens to derail the rich history of virus discovery, field epidemiology and understanding of the richness of diversity that surrounds us. This lack of continuity may have immediate and disastrous consequences for public health when yet to be discovered arboviruses emerge. The purpose of these books is to bridge this gap by providing a historical context for the work being done today and provide continuity between the generations. To this end, the books provide a narrative of the thrill of scientific discovery and excitement of field adventures and lab studies of that generation -- essential reading for every arbovirologist, and highly recommended for all virologists and public health officials, as well as those students considering future research options. Volume I consists of the personal reflections of arbovirologists who played a significant role in the advancement of arbovirology across the globe. Volume II transitions to descriptions of region-specific and virus family-specific perspectives of arbovirology, as well as recollections of the early events of molecular advances and pathogenesis studies.

Global Health Impacts of Vector Borne Diseases

Global Health Impacts of Vector Borne Diseases
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 397
Release: 2016-09-21
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309377621

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Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases â€" including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague â€" together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future. In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Handbook of Zoonoses Section B

Handbook of Zoonoses  Section B
Author: George W. Beran
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 606
Release: 2017-12-06
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781351441797

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This multivolume handbook presents the most authoritative and comprehensive reference work on major zoonoses of the world. The Handbook of Zoonoses covers most diseases communicable to humans, as well as those diseases common to both animals and humans. It identifies animal diseases that are host specific and reviews the effects of various human diseases on animals. Discussions address diseases that remain important public and animal health problems and the techniques that can control and prevent them. The chapters are written by internationally recognized scientists in their respective areas of disease, who work or have worked extensively in the most affected areas of the world. The emphasis for each zoonosis is on the epidemiology of the disease, the clinical syndromes and carrier states in infected animals and humans, and the most current methods for diagnosis and approaches to control. For infectious agents or biologic toxins, which may be transmitted by foods of animal origin, a strong focus is placed on food safety measures. The etiologic and therapeutic aspects of each disease important to epidemiology and control are identified.

Microbial Zoonoses and Sapronoses

Microbial Zoonoses and Sapronoses
Author: Zdenek Hubálek,Ivo Rudolf
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 457
Release: 2010-11-25
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789048196579

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This book presents the state of art in the field of microbial zoonoses and sapronoses. It could be used as a textbook or manual in microbiology and medical zoology for students of human and veterinary medicine, including Ph.D. students, and for biomedicine scientists and medical practitioners and specialists as well. Surprisingly, severe zoonoses and sapronoses still appear that are either entirely new (e.g., SARS), newly recognized (Lyme borreliosis), resurging (West Nile fever in Europe), increasing in incidence (campylobacterosis), spatially expanding (West Nile fever in the Americas), with a changing range of hosts and/or vectors, with changing clinical manifestations or acquiring antibiotic resistance. The collective term for those diseases is (re)emerging infections, and most of them represent zoonoses and sapronoses (the rest are anthroponoses). The number of known zoonotic and sapronotic pathogens of humans is continually growing − over 800 today. In the introductory part, short characteristics are given of infectious and epidemic process, including the role of environmental factors, possibilities of their epidemiological surveillance, and control. Much emphasis is laid on ecological aspects of these diseases (haematophagous vectors and their life history; vertebrate hosts of zoonoses; habitats of the agents and their geographic distribution; natural focality of diseases). Particular zoonoses and sapronoses are then characterized in the following brief paragraphs: source of human infection; animal disease; transmission mode; human disease; epidemiology; diagnostics; therapy; geographic distribution.

Bats in the Anthropocene Conservation of Bats in a Changing World

Bats in the Anthropocene  Conservation of Bats in a Changing World
Author: Christian C. Voigt,Tigga Kingston
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 606
Release: 2015-12-07
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9783319252209

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This book focuses on central themes related to the conservation of bats. It details their response to land-use change and management practices, intensified urbanization and roost disturbance and loss. Increasing interactions between humans and bats as a result of hunting, disease relationships, occupation of human dwellings, and conflict over fruit crops are explored in depth. Finally, contributors highlight the roles that taxonomy, conservation networks and conservation psychology have to play in conserving this imperilled but vital taxon. With over 1300 species, bats are the second largest order of mammals, yet as the Anthropocene dawns, bat populations around the world are in decline. Greater understanding of the anthropogenic drivers of this decline and exploration of possible mitigation measures are urgently needed if we are to retain global bat diversity in the coming decades. This book brings together teams of international experts to provide a global review of current understanding and recommend directions for future research and mitigation.

Brucellosis in Humans and Animals

Brucellosis in Humans and Animals
Author: Michael J. Corbel,World Health Organization
Publsiher: World Health Organization
Total Pages: 103
Release: 2006
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789241547130

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Brucellosis, also known as undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, or Malta fever, is an important human disease in many parts of the world. It is a zoonosis and the infection is almost invariably transmitted to people by direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. These Guidelines are designed as a concise, yet comprehensive, statement on brucellosis for public health, veterinary and laboratory personnel without access to specialized services. They are also to be a source of accessible and updated information for such others as nurses, midwives and medical assistants who may have to be involved with brucellosis in humans. Emphasis is placed on fundamental measures of environmental and occupational hygiene in the community and in the household as well as on the sequence of actions required to detect and treat patients.